Types of SwordsSwords are quite amazing. And they have a very long history. And over the centuries of sword making and sword use there have been a lot of varations. In this article I have chosen some of the major types of swords with included illustrations. The purpose here is to give you a good cross section of the different sword types. There are a lot of reasons why swords vary so much and let me give you a quick summary. Rapier - th centuries. About 36 inches long with a thin blade of about one inch. Mostly a stabbing weapon although sometimes sharpened with an edge on one or both sides. The hilt was either a shield or a complex basket of wires. Viking Sword - This covers a lot of ground and quite a few centuries but the Viking age is around the 9th to 11th centuries. This sword did vary a bit of course and over the centuries the length grew a few inches the pommel changed and the crossbar was extended. Falchion - typically about 36 inches in length. So, it had tremendous striking power but was slower as a sword. Katana inches. It is a Japanese weapon and It saw its greatest use and achieved its current shape between the 14th and 16th centuries. It is a curved blade slashing weapon that is sharpened on one side. Scimitar - 12th th century Persian and Middle Eastern slashing sword with a curved blade and sharpened on one edge. Khopesh - typically inches in length. It was used by the Egyptians from approximately 3, bc to 1, bc. In the yearly centuries it was made of Bronze and in the later centuries it was made of Iron. The curved blade gave it added strength and made it a good hacking weapon. The pointed tip which pointed back at the user was useful as a hook which could hook and pull an opponents weapon.
Classification of swords
This article does not contain any citations or references. Please improve this article by adding a reference. For information about how to add references, see Template:Citation. The term sword is here used in a narrow sense. This is not a general list of bladed weapons and does not include the machete or similar "sword-like" weapons. All of the Islamic world during the 16th to 18th century, including the Ottoman EmpirePersia and Mughal Indiawere influenced by the saif or " scimitar " type of single-edged curved sword. Via the Mameluke sword this also gave rise to the European cavalry sabre. Conversely, the term for the western sword in Arabic was firangi i. While the scimitar also spread to North India in the form of the Talwarthere are is also an autochthonous sword of the straight form in India, known as the Khanda. Sign In Don't have an account? Contents [ show ]. Main article: Oakeshott typology. Main article: Scimitar. Main article: Chinese sword. Main article: Japanese sword. Main article: Korean sword. Bronze Age sword. Jian Dao. Dadao Zhanmadao. Liuyedao Wodao Changdao Yanmaodao. Miao dao. Khanda Firangi Talwar Kayamkulam vaal Pata. Kampilan Kalis Barong Panabas. Talwar Kastane Krabi. Macuahuitl Macana. Khopesh Acinaces. Ida Kaskara Nimcha Shotel Billao. Categories :. Cancel Save. Early history Bronze Age sword. Ancient Jian Dao. Formative stage Hwandudaedo. Pre-Columbian era Macuahuitl Macana. Ancient Egypt Khopesh Acinaces. This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia view authors.
In the earliest times there were two types:. Both had a handle or hilt, and a metal blade. Both were designed for killing the enemy. The perfect sword did not just appear by magic. It took thousands of years to develop. The sword was a late-comer to ancient warfare. Because it needed a long metal blade, and until armorers learned to produce hard metal, an effective sword could not be made. It was much easier to make a mace or an axe. These weapons had a comparatively small head or blade and so were easier to make, and they held sway for thousands of years. Since they were not made of hard metal, there was the constant fear that they would break or be blunted by a heavy blow. This problem was partly solved by making the centre of the blade thicker see images below. Note that the center of the blade is slightly thicker, making it stronger. These were curved swords used for striking. See the examples below. The Stele of Vultures. See the object held in the right hand of the warrior at the left of this stone relief from Telloh. Conch plaque from the temple of Ishtar at Mari. It was a striking, as distinct from a thrusting, weapon. It was particularly suited to charioteers who could wield it at the height of a charge. See examples below. The distinctive feature of all these swords during the first half of the second millennium is the shortness of the blade in relation to its hilt. The hilt was roughly twice the length of the bladegiving the weapon an axe-like quality. It was during this period that this weapon can be said to have become a proper sword. Things changed when helmets and armor came into general use. The blade of a sword became longer than the hilt. How do we know? You can see this in the 13th century rock carving from Yazilikaya near Boghazkoy in Anatolia see below. It shows warrior-gods marching in columns bearing the curved sword with the long blade on their shoulder. This must have been how the sword was carried on the march. The detailed form and shape of four sickle swords. The first type of sword like this was found at Gezer in Palestine in the tomb of a nobleman, belonging to the first half of the 14th century BC. The sickle sword at far right in the image above bears the name of the Assyrian king, Adad-Nirari BC. In the period of the New Kingdom this type of sword became popular in Egypt. The Egyptians called this sword khopesh after their word for the foreleg of an animal, which it resembled.
Types of Samurai Swords
Swords have been made from as early as the Kofun periodthough most people generally refer to the curved blades made after the Heian period when speaking of "Japanese swords". There are many types of Japanese swords that differ by size, shape, field of application and method of manufacture. Some of the more commonly known types of Japanese swords are the katanatsurugiwakizashiodachiand tachi. The type classifications for Japanese swords indicate the combination of a blade and its mounts as this, then, determines the style of use of the blade. An unsigned and shortened blade that was once made and intended for use as a tachi may be alternately mounted in tachi koshirae and katana koshirae. It is properly distinguished, then, by the style of mount it currently inhabits. In this way, a blade formally attributed as a wakizashi due to length may be informally discussed between individuals as a tanto because the blade was made during an age where tanto were popular and the wakizashi as a companion sword to katana did not yet exist. In modern times the most commonly known type of Japanese sword is the Shinogi-Zukuri katanawhich is a single-edged and usually curved longsword traditionally worn by samurai from the 15th century onwards. Naginata and yari despite being polearms are still considered to be swords. Japanese swords are still commonly seen today, antique and modern forged swords can easily be found and purchased. Western historians have said that Japanese katana were among the finest cutting weapons in world military history, for their intended use. Meibutsu noted swords is a special designation given to sword masterpieces which are listed in a compilation from the 18th century called the "Kyoho Meibutsucho". The swords listed are Koto blades from several different provinces, of the swords listed are known to exist today with Soshu blades being very well represented. The "Kyoho Meibutsucho" also listed the nicknames, prices, history and length of the Meibutsu with swords by Yoshimitsu, Masamune, Yoshihiro, and Sadamune being very highly priced. Each blade has a unique profile, mostly dependent on the swordsmith and the construction method. The most prominent part is the middle ridge, or shinogi. In the earlier picture, the examples were flat to the shinogi, then tapering to the blade edge. However, swords could narrow down to the shinogi, then narrow further to the blade edge, or even expand outward towards the shinogi then shrink to the blade edge producing a trapezoidal shape. A flat or narrowing shinogi is called shinogi-hikushiwhereas a flat blade is called a shinogi-takushi. The shinogi can be placed near the back of the blade for a longer, sharper, more fragile tip or a more moderate shinogi near the center of the blade. In addition, whether the front edge of the tip is more curved fukura-tsuku or relatively straight fukura-kareru is also important. Kissaki usually have a curved profile, and smooth three-dimensional curvature across their surface towards the edge—though they are bounded by a straight line called the yokote and have crisp definition at all their edges. While the straight tip on the "American tanto" is identical to traditional Japanese fukura, two characteristics set itself apart from Japanese sword makes; The absolute lack of curve only possible with modern tools, and the use of the word "tanto" in the nomenclature of thd western tribute is merely a nod to the Japanese word for knife or short sword, rather than a tip style. Although it is not commonly known, the "chisel point" kissaki originated in Japan. Because American bladesmiths use this design extensively it is a common misconception that the design originated in America. A hole is punched through the tang nakagocalled a mekugi-ana. It is used to anchor the blade using a mekugia small bamboo pin that is inserted into another cavity in the handle tsuka and through the mekugi-ana, thus restricting the blade from slipping out. To remove the handle one removes the mekugi. The swordsmith's signature mei is carved on the tang. In Japanese, the scabbard is referred to as a sayaand the handguard piece, often intricately designed as an individual work of art—especially in later years of the Edo period —was called the tsuba. Other aspects of the mountings koshiraesuch as the menuki decorative grip swellshabaki blade collar and scabbard wedgefuchi and kashira handle collar and capkozuka small utility knife handlekogai decorative skewer-like implementsaya lacquer, and tsuka-ito professional handle wrap, also named tsukamakireceived similar levels of artistry. The mei is the signature inscribed on to the tang of the Japanese sword. Fake signatures "gimei" are common not only due to centuries of forgeries but potentially misleading ones that acknowledge prominent smiths and guilds, and those commissioned to a separate signer.