Oil tanker construction pdf

Design and Construction of Oil Tankers

Herbert Engineering Corp. Interveners have filed evidence regarding the design and construction of double hull oil tankers. This report replies to certain aspects of the intervener evidence referenced above and explains the common structural rules and how oil tankers are designed to operate in the weather conditions experienced on the BC North Coast. The report also discusses tanker construction, the materials used and oversight of the construction process. This report reviews current design and construction practices for oil tankers, with reference to how these standards have evolved. It focuses on ship structure and the various standards and practices that have been implemented to reduce the likelihood that structural failure will lead to a release of oil into the environment. Over 50, cargo ships are engaged in international trade. Independent shipowners control a majority of the tanker tonnage. These owners tend to build versatile vessels that are less likely to become obsolete as markets and conditions change. This practice has led to a commonality in sizes and configurations. This commonality enables shipyards to build large series of the same design, which significantly reduces the cost of construction. Table 1 shows the capacity of the world tanker fleet by size of vessel. Aframax, Suezmax and VLCCs are generally arranged for shipping of crude oil only, whereas Panamax and smaller vessels can generally carry a variety of petroleum products. New orders for tankers began expanding in the late s and then again in Over the last five years, the average age for tankers has declined from 15 years to 8 years. The grounding of the Exxon Valdez was a watershed event, triggering fundamental changes in the way oil tankers are managed, operated and maintained. The regulatory bodies recognized a need for continuous improvement in environmental performance, and many new regulations have been introduced over the last two decades. Because of the high level of shipbuilding activity in recent years, a significant portion of the world tanker fleet is designed and maintained to these enhanced standards. Many of these new regulations became de facto industry practice well before the International Maritime Organization IMO regulations were officially adopted and implemented. For example, singletank-across cargo tank arrangements have not been employed on large tankers since the early s even though the accidental outflow regulation was not mandated until Similarly, the tops and bottoms of cargo tanks on most double-hulled tankers are coated even though the cargo tank coating regulation is not yet in force. The reason for the early adoption of these practices is the desire of ship owners to meet the expectations of future charterers, to control maintenance costs, and to reduce risk of oil spillage. The rules and regulations applied for the design and construction of oil tankers are primarily developed by the IMO and the classification societies. IMO is an agency of the United Nations, charged with developing a regulatory framework that promotes maritime safety and environmental protection. IMO regulations focus on the arrangements and outfitting of the vessel as it pertains to safety and environmental performance. For example, these regulations cover load line freeboard requirements, intact and damage stability, firefighting and lifesaving equipment. In IMO adopted regulations on the coating of ballast tanks, and requirements for coating cargo tanks on newbuildings will become effective in Ingoal-based standards GBS [ref. This regulation establishes performance standards for structural integrity in the intact and damage condition over the design life of the vessel, and outlines the process for auditing the rules of organizations likely the classification societies for compliance with the goal-based standards. Classification societies develop technical rules and guides for the design and construction of ships, perform plan review to confirm that the design is in conformance with their rules, and. The classification societies also perform periodic surveys during the life of the vessel to verify continued compliance with the rules and regulations. A Certificate of Class is usually a necessary condition for obtaining insurance. National authorities generally require that a vessel be maintained in class as a condition for national registry. The classification societies verify the structural integrity of the hull and the functionality of propulsion and other essential systems through development and verification of compliance with their own rules. The classification societies began producing rules for the structural design and survey of ships in the s.

Standards for the Double Hull Construction of Oil Tankers - TP 11710 E (2009)

International and national regulations remain unaffected. For the purposes of these Rules, tankers are: a. Ships for the carriage of liquids in tanks which form part of the hull, and b. Ships with fixed tanks independent of the hull and used for the carriage of liquids. Requirements for tankers in this chapter shall apply to tankers carrying crude oil or petroleum products having a flashpoint not exceeding 60C closed cup testas determined by an approved flashpoint apparatus, and a Reid vapour pressure which is below the atmospheric pressure or other liquid products having a similar fire hazard. Category 2 : Commonly known as MARPOL oil tankers of size 20, dwt and above to carry Crude oil, Fuel Oil, Lubricating Oil or Heavy Diesel Oil as cargo and of 30, and above carrying other oils, which do comply with requirements for protectively located segregated ballast tanks. Category 3 :Oil tankers of dwt and above but less than dwt specified for Categories 1 and 2. Prevention of Hazards from the cargo and cargo vapour. Prevention of Pollution hazard. Prevention of fire hazard. Each of the above objectives are achieved only when a tanker is constructed as well as operated in accordance with well established rules and regulations. Also in the Safety Management System Manual required by the ISM code the safe operating procedures are to be given for various operations onboard the ships. Commission for Navigation on the Rhine is the oldest international organisation in modern history and was established with an objective of controlling the river transport through Rhine. The Oil Companies International Marine Forum OCIMF is a voluntary association of oil companies established in with an interest in the shipment and terminalling of crude oil, oil products, petrochemicals and gas with an objective of achieving safe and environmentally responsible operation of oil tankers, terminals and offshore support vessels, promoting continuous improvement in standards of design and operation. International Chamber of shipping is the principal international trade association for the international shipping industry, representing all sectors and trades of shipping and was established in IACS was founded on September 11,in Hamburg, Germany they are the technical body formulating precise rules for the construction of ships in line with IMO regulations. Although IACS is a non-governmental organization, it also plays a role within the International Maritime Organization IMOfor which IACS provides technical support and guidance and develops unified interpretations of the international statutory regulations developed by the member states of the IMO. IACS has consultative status with the IMO, and remains the only non-governmental organization with observer status which also develops and applies technical rules that are reflective of the aims embodied within IMO conventions. The regulations apply to new oil tankers of grt and above for which; 1. The building or major conversion contract is placed on or after 6th July2. The keel is laid or construction work commenced after 6th January3. Delivery is made or work completed on or after 6th July Construction Rules-Hull Design The entire cargo tank length shall be protected by ballast tanks. This distance h shall be measured at right angles to the shell plating and prevail upto a height of 1. Where h and w are different, at the turn of the bilge, w shall prevail at a height above 1. Suction wells of cargo tanks may protrude into the DB tank below provided that the well is made as small as possible and the height of the suction well from the bottom is not less than 0. Ballast, Vent pipes and Sounding pipes shall not pass through cargo tanks and vice versa; except for short lengths of pipes which has to be of complete welded construction or equivalent. Oil shall not be carried in spaces forward of the collision bulk head or similar bulk head in the location. The double bottom tank may be dispensed with if the weight of the cargo plus the vapor pressure is less than the outside water pressure, so that in the event of a hull failure the out side water pressure will prevent the out flow of oil, like in mid deck design. Here the depth of cargo tank is calculated as follows: 1. The wing tank partition shall extend up to the bottom shell. In the turn of the bilge area, the tank top shall extend parallel to the line of mid-ship flat bottom to meet the ship side. In smaller double hull tankers the two longitudinal divisions are omitted from a single centre tank and hence the free surface effect is increased. Due to the second outer hull the centre of gravity of the cargo is raised causing a reduction in GM. For ships loading and or offloading in port only, the GM corrected for free surfaces measured at 0 heel shall be not less than 0. In practice the resulting GM in modern smaller size Panamax double tankers are very near to the above value. The greatest problem occurs towards completion of loading or initial stages of discharging when the tanks are almost full and the ballast is almost empty with both ballast and cargo providing free surface effect and raising KG. At these stages the concerned officers should take extreme care not to reach the angle of loll, especially when multiple tanks are loaded or discharged. Other than the above designs may also be accepted by IMO provided that they offer equal amount of protection incase of a damage to the hull. One such revolutionary design was the Coulombi egg design created by the Swedish naval engineer Anders Bjokman.

Design and Construction of Oil Tankers

The Director Operations and Environmental Programs is responsible for this document, including any change, correction, or update. While use of this material has been authorized, Transport Canada shall not be responsible for the manner in which the information is presented, nor for any interpretations thereof. This TP E may not be updated to reflect amendments made to the original content. For up-to-date information, contact Transport Canada. Recognizing the need to improve the requirements for the design and construction of oil tankers to prevent accidental oil pollution in the event of collision or grounding, Transport Canada adopted Standards for the construction of new and existing Canadian tankers, and for new and existing non-Canadian registered oil tankers, when such non-Canadian-registered tankers operate in Canadian waters and the fishing zones of Canada in Inthe Oil Pollution Prevention Regulations were amended to incorporate these Standards by reference in section These amendments incorporated further acceleration of the phase-out scheduled for single-hulled tankers, a ban on the carriage of heavy grades of oil by singled hulled tankers and an extended application of the Condition Assessment Scheme. The amendments are contained in resolutions MEPC. The U. These Standards incorporate the new Annex I provisions for existing tankers but, recognizing that the U. OPA 90 phase out provisions will continue to be applied to the following existing tankers:. Rather than incorporating the provisions of TP by reference, as was done in section The Standards for the Double Hull Construction of Oil Tankers may be used as a companion document to the Regulations and should not be seen as adding to or detracting from existing statutory or regulatory requirements that will prevail in the case of conflict with this Standard. Section 36 of the Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and for Dangerous Chemicals specifies that non-Canadian tankers must carry international certification. Canadian tankers must carry either Canadian certification, if they operate exclusively in waters under Canadian jurisdiction, or international certification if they operate outside these waters; in many cases Canadian tankers carry both certificates. Vessel operators would not be prohibited from changing the service of a tanker in order to take advantage of any delayed phase out under either the OPA 90 or MARPOL regimes, but tankers would be required to meet all other applicable requirements. In particular, a Canadian domestic tanker with a COPP Certificate would be expected to meet all applicable international safety requirements to operate as a foreign-going vessel before being issued an IOPP Certificate. The lists may also used to determine if further amendments have been made to any IMO documents — this version of this Standard reflects all amendments up to and including the 58th meeting of the Marine Environment Protection Committee in October MEPC Figure 2 Cargo tank boundary lines within the turn of bilge for oil tankers under 5, tonnes deadweight. Figure 3 Cargo tank boundary lines for oil tankers adopting alternative arrangements for double bottom spaces Section 9 refers. The length of each cargo tank shall not exceed 10 m or one of the following values for lwhichever is the greater:. An oil tanker of less than 5, gross tonnage, for which a building contract or contract for major conversion was placed before 6 July or that is delivered under that contract before 6 Julymay not operate after January 1,unless the vessel is equipped with a double hull or with a double containment system determined by the Minister to be as effective as a double hull for the prevention of a discharge of oil. Skip to main content Skip to "About this site". Report a problem on this page. Sections 2, 3, 6, 7, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 amended and section 27 added. Sections 2, 10, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20 and 27 amended. Requirements revised to incorporate amendments to regulation 13G of Annex I of MARPOL and an additional new regulation 13H which called for further acceleration of the phase-out scheduled for single-hulled tankers, a ban on the carriage of heavy grades of oil by singled hulled tankers and an extended application of the Condition Assessment Scheme as contained in resolutions MEPC. Updated to reflect the Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships and for Dangerous Chemicals that revoked the Oil Pollution Prevention Regulations and to remove outdated provisions. All such tankers delivered in or earlier were required to meet Part II by at the latest for vessels delivered in for vessels delivered in or later.

Standards for the Double Hull Construction of Oil Tankers - TP 11710 E (2009)

The global crude oil and refined product tanker fleet uses a classification system to standardize contract terms, establish shipping costs, and determine the ability of ships to travel into ports or through certain straits and channels. AFRA uses a scale that classifies tanker vessels according to deadweight tons, a measure of a ship's capacity to carry cargo. East Coast. Their smaller size allows them to access most ports across the globe. A GP tanker can carry between 70, barrels andbarrels of motor gasoline 3. Long Range LR class ships are the most common in the global tanker fleet, as they are used to carry both refined products and crude oil. These ships can access most large ports that ship crude oil and petroleum products. An LR1 tanker can carry betweenbarrels andbarrels of gasoline This ship size is popular with oil companies for logistical purposes, and, therefore, many ships have been built within these specifications. Over the history of AFRA, vessels grew in size and newer classifications were added. VLCCs are responsible for most crude oil shipments around the globe, including in the North Sea, home of the crude oil price benchmark Brent. A VLCC can carry between 1. There are a small number of ULCC vessels currently in use, as their size requires special facilities limiting the number of places where these vessels can load and offload. These massive vessels can carry around 2 million barrels to 3. The only U. Add us to your site. Today in Energy. Mason Hamilton, U. Energy Information Administration. Source: U. Email Share Print. Send your feedback to todayinenergy eia.

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Before embarking on a technical analysis of alternative tank vessel designs, standard design and operational practices related to pollution prevention should be understood. This chapter will discuss the evolution of these practices, as well as the legal and regulatory framework governing the tank vessel industry. The discussion applies primarily to tankers, although some sections, as noted, apply to barges. Crude oil and petroleum products have been carried in ships for more than years. The practice of carrying the oil directly inside the single hull of a ship has been common since this type of ship was first built in The hull provided far better security for the cargo than barrels, or casks, which could split and spill oil, creating fire and explosion hazards. Tanker designs established in the late s remained virtually unchanged until shortly after World War II. Tankers commonly were of 10, to 15, DWT, with a single skin, the engine to the stern, and multiple compartmentation with either two or three tanks across. Cargoes were usually refined products, most often light or "white" oils, which were not considered polluting as they rapidly evaporated if spilled. The non-polluting cargo meant that tanks could be rinsed out with water which then was dumped at seaand the same tanks could be used for ballast sea water. Separate ballast tanks, other than the peak tanks at the ends of the shipwere virtually unheard-of until after World War II. After the war, the world economy expanded with a resulting huge increase in demand for energy in the form of oil. At the same time, a new shipping pattern evolved: Crude oil often was transported from distant sources, such as the Persian Gulf, to major marketing areas, notably North America, Northern Europe, and Japan, where the crude was refined and redistributed as product. These long voyages set the stage for a dramatic increase in ship size, which started about See Figure The numbers of tankers in the world fleet also multiplied many times over. Meanwhile, significant technical developments were afoot, including the following:. Welding replaced riveting, a major benefit to the tanker industry in assuring tightness of tanks. The practice initially led to some cracking, and ships breaking in half, but these problems were solved with better materials, welding, and design. The empirical, or rule-of-thumb, design approach was augmented and partially supplanted by theoretical techniques. This trend was facilitated by the introduction of computers in the s and s, and, in fact, was necessitated by the growth in ship size from vessels of around feet to over 1, feet, with an increase in deadweight of over twenty-fold in less than 20 years. While the basic types of static and dynamic forces acting on ship structure had been known in general for years, it was not until the s that naval architects were able to quantify the loads precisely and to carry out the stress analysis needed to design ships on a theoretically sophisticated basis. By the s, reliable theoretical quantification of loads and structural response was common for tankers; however, practical service experience remains vital to verify structural integrity and detail design. As newer design techniques were introduced, "safety factors" design allowances for unknown factors were reduced, in the desire to keep costs down and to get maximum deadweight for minimum draft the depth of water a vessel draws. The effect is shown in Table It also implies more efficient structure, and, in general, less margin to tolerate construction or maintenance errors or unusual operational events. Structural weight reductions were accompanied by a reduction in the number and resulting increase in size of compartments; the intent was to lower construction cost and simplify operations. While this change has. A valid concern with larger compartments is the increased amount of oil that could be spilled if the tank were breached.

How its Made - Oil Tanker Ships

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