- The man who brought us the lithium-ion battery at the age of 57 has an idea for a new one at 92
- The history and development of batteries
- History of the battery
- 94-year old Lithium-Ion battery inventor unveils new ultra-efficient glass battery
- Lithium-Ion Battery Inventor Introduces New Technology for Fast-Charging, Noncombustible Batteries
The man who brought us the lithium-ion battery at the age of 57 has an idea for a new one at 92He is a co-founder and Technical Director of Altelium Ltd. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. These three world-leading scientists deserve enormous credit for their contributions to lithium ion battery LIB technology. The decision to award more than one person correctly reflects the fact that this technology did not appear at once out of the dungeon laboratory of an individual genius, but rather is a history of systematic problem solving. LIBs have had a huge impact on our society. They enabled modern portable electronics such as laptops and mobile phones. And they are now enabling clean and low-carbon transport, be it via electric cars or even flying taxisand grid-scale storage of renewable energy. The success of LIBs is explained by the way batteries work. A battery cell releases the energy from a chemical reaction in the form of electricity. If the internal reaction is a powerful one, this yields a high voltage. Lithium is a very reactive element and the lightest metal on the periodic table, so it ticks both these boxes. This is why LIBs rapidly became a crucial part of electronics after their commercialisation in the early s. Using lithium for electrochemical energy storage is a no-brainer on the back of an envelope. But that very reactivity that boosts the energy content also makes it very difficult to build a cell that can be safely kept in charged state, drained of its energy via electric current, and then returned to charged state just by feeding back that current. Whittingham took a chance way ahead of time, in the s, by developing and later commercialising via Exxon the first lithium-based rechargeable battery. But one of the peculiarities of lithium is its tendency to form needles and dendrites long branching structures during this recharging process. Those can cause internal short circuits, and this made the first generation of rechargeable lithium batteries inherently unsafe. This material contains lithium but is less reactive with its environment and so easier to handle in the manufacturing process. Today, even cutting-edge high-energy electrodes — such as NMC — that boost the range of the next generation of electric vehicles are essentially made from lithium cobalt oxide with the cobalt largely replaced by nickel and manganese in an otherwise similar crystal structure. Then in the late s, Yoshino built the first commercially viable rechargeable lithium battery that used graphite instead of metallic lithium as the negative electrode. In this architecture, also used in modern cells, lithium travels between two different host structures: lithium cobalt oxide and graphite. Yoshino also deserves credit for developing the architecture that enabled the use of organic electrolytesdelivering voltages that are more than twice as large as those with traditional water-based electrolytes. But the poor conductivity of organic electrolytes means the positive and negative electrodes must be thin and placed close together. Yoshino found ways of coating the active electrode materials on thin metal foils, and was able to to separate positive and negative electrodes by a thin mesh. Only that way could the first generation of LIBs compete with the energy and power performance of the nickel metal hydride batteries that dominated portable electronics in the early s. Those two deserve credit for their findings and inventions that enabled the use of graphite electrodes and that brought LIBs to mass market, respectively.
The history and development of batteries
But you know his work. Consider the last six or seven decades of technological and scientific leaps: the polio vaccine, space rocketry, the Arpanet predecessor of the internet. The second is the lithium-ion battery. Commercialized by Sony inlithium-ion took the clunky electronics enabled by the transistor and made them portable. Unlike the transistor, the lithium-ion battery has not won a Nobel Prize. But many people think it should. The lithium-ion battery gave the transistor reach. Without it, we would not have smartphones, tablets or laptops, including the device you are reading at this very moment. There would be no Apple. No Samsung. No Tesla. His brainchild was the cobalt-oxide cathode, the single most important component of every lithium-ion battery. Others have tried to improve on the cobalt-oxide cathode, but all have failed. Today, at 92, Goodenough still goes to his smallish office every day at the University of Texas at Austin. When solar and wind power produce electricity, it must be either used immediately or lost forever—there is no economic stationary battery in which to store the power. Meanwhile, storm clouds are gathering: Oil is again cheap but, like all cyclical commodities, its price will go back up. The climate is warming and becoming generally more turbulent. In short, the world needs a super-battery. The good news is that Goodenough has one last idea. I still have time to go. With that, Goodenough hoots, possibly the strangest laugh of any scientist on the planet. Listen to it here. A battery is basically a device for making electrically charged atoms—known as ions—travel from one point to another. When electrical charges move, they create an electric current. This current powers anything connected to the battery. To make a battery, therefore, you need two electrodes, between which the ions will do their traveling. In the middle, you need a substance for them to travel through, called an electrolyte. One electrode is negatively charged, and is called the anode. The other, positively charged, is the cathode. When the battery is discharging—i. Almost everything in battery design comes down to the materials of which the anode, cathode, and electrolyte are made.
History of the battery
Batteries are so ubiquitous today that they're almost invisible to us. Yet they are a remarkable invention with a long and storied history, and an equally exciting future. A battery is essentially a device that stores chemical energy that is converted into electricity. Basically, batteries are small chemical reactors, with the reaction producing energetic electronsready to flow through the external device. Batteries have been with us for a long time. In the Director of the Baghdad Museum found what is now referred to as the " Baghdad Battery " in the basement of the museum. Analysis dated it at around BC and of Mesopotamian origin. Controversy surrounds this earliest example of a battery but suggested uses include electroplating, pain relief or a religious tingle. American scientist and inventor Benjamin Franklin first used the term "battery" in when he was doing experiments with electricity using a set of linked capacitors. The first true battery was invented by the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta in Volta stacked discs of copper Cu and zinc Zn separated by cloth soaked in salty water. Wires connected to either end of the stack produced a continuous stable current. Each cell a set of a Cu and a Zn disc and the brine produces 0. A multiple of this value is obtained given by the number of cells that are stacked together. One of the most enduring batteries, the lead-acid battery, was invented in and is still the technology used to start most internal combustion engine cars today. It is the oldest example of rechargeable battery. Today batteries come in a range of sizes from large Megawatt sizes, which store the power from solar farms or substations to guarantee stable supply in entire villages or islands, down to tiny batteries like those used in electronic watches. Batteries are based on different chemistries, which generate basic cell voltages typically in the 1. The stacking of the cells in series increases the voltage, while their connection in parallel enhances the supply of current. This principle is used to add up to the required voltages and currents, all the way to the Megawatt sizes. There is now much anticipation that battery technology is about to take another leap with new models being developed with enough capacity to store the power generated with domestic solar or wind systems and then power a home at more convenient generally night time for a few days. When a battery is discharged the chemical reaction produces some extra electrons as the reaction occurs. An example of a reaction that produces electrons is the oxidation of iron to produce rust. Iron reacts with oxygen and gives up electrons to the oxygen to produce iron oxide. The standard construction of a battery is to use two metals or compounds with different chemical potentials and separate them with a porous insulator. The chemical potential is the energy stored in the atoms and bonds of the compounds, which is then imparted to the moving electrons, when these are allowed to move through the connected external device.
94-year old Lithium-Ion battery inventor unveils new ultra-efficient glass battery
The new battery uses a sodium- or lithium-coated glass electrolyte that has triple the storage capacity of a lithium ion battery. It also charges in minutes instead of hours and operates in both frigid and hot weather from to 60 degrees centigrade. Early tests suggest the battery is capable of at least 1, charge-discharge cycles, significantly more charging cycles than a comparable lithium-ion battery, and best of all, the glass-based electrolyte will not form the dendrites that plague lithium-ion battery technology. The dendrites accumulate as part of the standard charging and recharging cycle and eventually cause a short circuit that often results in a smoldering or burning battery. Goodenough believes this battery technology could be the breakthrough that brings the electric car into the mainstream. This same battery technology could also be used to store energy in both solar and wind-power systems. Goodenough and his team have succeeded in developing the glass-based anode, and are now working on the cathode portion of the battery technology. The goal is to produce large-scale cells eventually and then move the technology over to manufacturers who will develop it commercially. Previous Next. John B. Goodenough, a year-old professor at the University of Texas at Austin, is widely credited for the identification and development of the Li-ion rechargeable battery -- which he began developing when he was InGoodenough was a co-recipient of the Enrico Fermi Award, which honors scientists of international stature for their lifetime achievement in the development, use, or production of energy. When asked about development of his new glass battery, Goodenough said "development is going to be with the battery manufacturers. Every upcoming electric car 1 day ago. The wildest 5G conspiracy theories explained — and debunked 1 day ago. Every electric car available in 1 day ago. Meet the sci-fi startup building computer chips with real biological neurons 3 days ago. Boeing to attempt second Starliner test flight after bungled debut mission 2 days ago. Mysterious drone tells New Yorkers to socially distance during pandemic 2 days ago. The best smart luggage for 2 days ago. This Borderlands 3 minigame will help map the bacteria in your gut 2 days ago. SpaceX Dragon spacecraft completes final mission ahead of crewed launch 1 day ago.