- The History of the Lithium-Ion Battery
- History of the battery
- Lithium-Ion Battery Inventor Introduces New Technology for Fast-Charging, Noncombustible Batteries
- The history and development of batteries
- The Inventor of the Lithium-Ion Battery Invents an Even Better One
The History of the Lithium-Ion BatteryA lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery abbreviated as LIB is a type of rechargeable battery. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used for portable electronics and electric vehicles and are growing in popularity for military and aerospace applications. In the batteries, lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge, and back when charging. Li-ion batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as the material at the positive electrode and typically graphite at the negative electrode. The batteries have a high energy densityno memory effect other than LFP cells  and low self-discharge. They can however be a safety hazard since they contain a flammable electrolyte, and if damaged or incorrectly charged can lead to explosions and fires. Samsung was forced to recall Galaxy Note 7 handsets following lithium-ion fires,  and there have been several incidents involving batteries on Boeing s. Chemistry, performance, cost and safety characteristics vary across LIB types. Handheld electronics mostly use lithium polymer batteries with a polymer gel as electrolyte with lithium cobalt oxide LiCoO 2 as cathode material, which offers high energy density, but presents safety risks,  especially when damaged. Such batteries are widely used for electric tools, medical equipment, and other roles. NMC in particular is a leading contender for automotive applications. Research areas for lithium-ion batteries include life extension, energy density, safety, cost reduction, and charging speed,  among others. Research has been under way in the area of non-flammable electrolytes as a pathway to increased safety based on the flammability and volatility of the organic solvents used in the typical electrolyte. Strategies include aqueous lithium-ion batteriesceramic solid electrolytes, polymer electrolytes, ionic liquids, and heavily fluorinated systems. A cell is a basic electrochemical unit that contains the electrodes, separator, and electrolyte. A battery or battery pack is a collection of cells or cell assemblies, with housing, electrical connections, and possibly electronics for control and protection. For rechargeable cells, the term anode or negative electrode designates the electrode where oxidation is taking place during the discharge cycle ; the other electrode is the cathode or positive electrode. During the charge cyclethe positive electrode becomes the anode and the negative electrode becomes the cathode. For most lithium-ion cells, the lithium-oxide electrode is the positive electrode; for titanate lithium-ion cells LTOthe lithium-oxide electrode is the negative electrode. Lithium batteries were proposed by British chemist M.
History of the battery
At 94, John Goodenough has accomplished more than most. Working at Oxford inhe and his colleagues invented the rechargeable lithium-ion battery, the bedrock of most of today's electronic devices. For this accomplishment, he has been given more awards and distinctions than any one person could hope to receive. But Goodenough is not one to rest on his laurels. More than 30 years later, and now a professor at the University of Texas at Austin, Goodenough has outdone himself by inventing an even better version of his ubiquitous lithium-ion battery. Goodenough's new battery boasts triple the energy storage of standard batteries, along with a much higher longevity. As an added bonus, the battery doesn't explode like lithium-ion batteries can. The new battery is solid-state, which means there are no liquid components in the battery. Traditional lithium-ion batteries are made of a solid cathode and anode separated by a liquid electrolyte that conducts electricity. Goodenough's solid-state battery replaces that liquid with a more efficient glass compound. A solid-state battery not only carries little risk of exploding, but also can charge much faster. With a solid-state battery instead of a lithium-ion, charging could happen in minutes instead of hours, which would be beneficial for people charging their phones and electric cars. Although this battery may be a game-changer for electronic devices, don't expect to see it in your phone or car anytime soon. New innovations in battery tech have many large obstacles between development and production, so it may be a long time—if ever—before Goodenough's invention makes it to market. But Goodenough has already done this once, so it's hopefully just a matter of time before his solid-state battery is adopted by the industry. Until then, we'll just have to keep using our inferior and fire-prone Goodenough batteries over the better version. Source: University of Texas at Austin. Type keyword s to search. Today's Top Stories. University of Texas at Austin.
Lithium-Ion Battery Inventor Introduces New Technology for Fast-Charging, Noncombustible Batteries
AUSTIN, Texas — A team of engineers led by year-old John Goodenough, professor in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin and co-inventor of the lithium-ion battery, has developed the first all-solid-state battery cells that could lead to safer, faster-charging, longer-lasting rechargeable batteries for handheld mobile devices, electric cars and stationary energy storage. The UT Austin battery formulation also allows for a greater number of charging and discharging cycles, which equates to longer-lasting batteries, as well as a faster rate of recharge minutes rather than hours. Instead of liquid electrolytes, the researchers rely on glass electrolytes that enable the use of an alkali-metal anode without the formation of dendrites. Additionally, because the solid-glass electrolytes can operate, or have high conductivity, at degrees Celsius, this type of battery in a car could perform well in subzero degree weather. This is the first all-solid-state battery cell that can operate under 60 degree Celsius. Braga began developing solid-glass electrolytes with colleagues while she was at the University of Porto in Portugal. About two years ago, she began collaborating with Goodenough and researcher Andrew J. Murchison at UT Austin. Braga said that Goodenough brought an understanding of the composition and properties of the solid-glass electrolytes that resulted in a new version of the electrolytes that is now patented through the UT Austin Office of Technology Commercialization. Goodenough and Braga are continuing to advance their battery-related research and are working on several patents. In the short term, they hope to work with battery makers to develop and test their new materials in electric vehicles and energy storage devices. This research is supported by UT Austin, but there are no grants associated with this work. The UT Austin Office of Technology Commercialization is actively negotiating license agreements with multiple companies engaged in a variety of battery-related industry segments. Pictured: Maria Helena Braga. Copy link. Explore Latest Articles.
The history and development of batteries
He is a co-founder and Technical Director of Altelium Ltd. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. These three world-leading scientists deserve enormous credit for their contributions to lithium ion battery LIB technology. The decision to award more than one person correctly reflects the fact that this technology did not appear at once out of the dungeon laboratory of an individual genius, but rather is a history of systematic problem solving. LIBs have had a huge impact on our society. They enabled modern portable electronics such as laptops and mobile phones. And they are now enabling clean and low-carbon transport, be it via electric cars or even flying taxisand grid-scale storage of renewable energy. The success of LIBs is explained by the way batteries work. A battery cell releases the energy from a chemical reaction in the form of electricity. If the internal reaction is a powerful one, this yields a high voltage. Lithium is a very reactive element and the lightest metal on the periodic table, so it ticks both these boxes. This is why LIBs rapidly became a crucial part of electronics after their commercialisation in the early s. Using lithium for electrochemical energy storage is a no-brainer on the back of an envelope. But that very reactivity that boosts the energy content also makes it very difficult to build a cell that can be safely kept in charged state, drained of its energy via electric current, and then returned to charged state just by feeding back that current. Whittingham took a chance way ahead of time, in the s, by developing and later commercialising via Exxon the first lithium-based rechargeable battery. But one of the peculiarities of lithium is its tendency to form needles and dendrites long branching structures during this recharging process. Those can cause internal short circuits, and this made the first generation of rechargeable lithium batteries inherently unsafe. This material contains lithium but is less reactive with its environment and so easier to handle in the manufacturing process. Today, even cutting-edge high-energy electrodes — such as NMC — that boost the range of the next generation of electric vehicles are essentially made from lithium cobalt oxide with the cobalt largely replaced by nickel and manganese in an otherwise similar crystal structure. Then in the late s, Yoshino built the first commercially viable rechargeable lithium battery that used graphite instead of metallic lithium as the negative electrode. In this architecture, also used in modern cells, lithium travels between two different host structures: lithium cobalt oxide and graphite. Yoshino also deserves credit for developing the architecture that enabled the use of organic electrolytesdelivering voltages that are more than twice as large as those with traditional water-based electrolytes. But the poor conductivity of organic electrolytes means the positive and negative electrodes must be thin and placed close together. Yoshino found ways of coating the active electrode materials on thin metal foils, and was able to to separate positive and negative electrodes by a thin mesh. Only that way could the first generation of LIBs compete with the energy and power performance of the nickel metal hydride batteries that dominated portable electronics in the early s. Those two deserve credit for their findings and inventions that enabled the use of graphite electrodes and that brought LIBs to mass market, respectively. The success of LIBs also had some indirect helpers which should be remembered in view of future technology commercialisations. In the s, modern microelectronics made it possible to unite video cameras and tape recorders in a single device. Suddenly, battery weight and longevity became product design bottlenecks in a lucrative growing market, which then fuelled demand for LIBs. At the same time, rewriteable CDs and DVDs were causing the beginning of the end of the audio and video tape business. But the coating processes and the machines used to build the first LIBs were adapted from magnetic tape manufacturing. The latest challenge is to scale LIB mass-production from portable electronics to the automotive and energy markets, and this requires concerted global efforts. This work has just begun.