- Ice Experiments
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- What causes an ice age and what would happen if the Earth endured another one?
Ice ExperimentsThis most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation extending from c. The Antarctic ice sheet began to form earlier, at about 34 Ma, in the mid- Cenozoic Eocene—Oligocene extinction event. The term Late Cenozoic Ice Age is used to include this early phase. During this last glacial period there were alternating episodes of glacier advance and retreat. Within the last glacial period the Last Glacial Maximum was approximately 22, years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat make it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent see picture of ice core data below for differences. Approximately 12, years ago, the Younger Dryasthe most recent glacial period, began. Its end about 11, years ago marked the beginning of the Holocenethe current geological epoch. From the point of view of human archaeologythe last glacial period falls in the Paleolithic and early Mesolithic periods. When the glaciation event started, Homo sapiens were confined to lower latitudes and used tools comparable to those used by Neanderthals in western and central Eurasia and by Denisovans and Homo erectus in Asia. Near the end of the event, Homo sapiens migrated into Eurasia and Australia. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived the last glacial period in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover. The last glacial period is sometimes colloquially referred to as the "last ice age", though this use is incorrect because an ice age is a longer period of cold temperature in which year-round ice sheets are present near one or both poles. Glacials are colder phases within an ice age in which glaciers advance; glacials are separated by interglacials. Thus, the end of the last glacial period, which was about 11, years ago, is not the end of the last ice age since extensive year-round ice persists in Antarctica and Greenland. Over the past few million years the glacial-interglacial cycles have been "paced" by periodic variations in the Earth's orbit via Milankovitch cycles. The last glacial period is the best-known part of the current ice age, and has been intensively studied in North America, northern Eurasia, the Himalaya and other formerly glaciated regions around the world. The glaciations that occurred during this glacial period covered many areas, mainly in the Northern Hemisphere and to a lesser extent in the Southern Hemisphere. The geochronological Late Pleistocene includes the late glacial Weichselian and the immediately preceding penultimate interglacial Eemian period. Canada was nearly completely covered by ice, as well as the northern part of the United States, both blanketed by the huge Laurentide Ice Sheet. Alaska remained mostly ice free due to arid climate conditions. Local glaciations existed in the Rocky Mountains and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet and as ice fields and ice caps in the Sierra Nevada in northern California. The Arctic Ocean between the huge ice sheets of America and Eurasia was not frozen throughout, but like today probably was only covered by relatively shallow ice, subject to seasonal changes and riddled with icebergs calving from the surrounding ice sheets. According to the sediment composition retrieved from deep-sea cores there must even have been times of seasonally open waters. The Pyreneesthe highest massifs of the Carpathian Mountains and the Balkanic peninsula mountains and to the east the Caucasus and the mountains of Turkey and Iran were capped by local ice fields or small ice sheets.
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Ice Age was released on March 15,  as a computer-animated comedy-drama adventure film directed by Chris Wedge and Carlos Saldanha. The film is set during the days of the ice age ; animals begin migrating south to escape the winters. Joining them is a saber-tooth tiger named Diegowho is commanded by his pack leader, Sototo bring the baby to him to enact revenge against the humans. The film received generally positive from critics and critical acclaim from audiences. The film won several film awards, including an Academy Award nomination. Sid embraces Manny 's trunk. A tribe of humans camp near a waterfall, among them their leader, named Runarwith his wife Nadia and their infant son Roshanbefore heading north to their settlement in the mountains. Sotoleader of a pack of saber-tooth tigers saber-tooth tigerwatches the humans with his trusted lieutenant, a cat named Diego. The attack takes place, with Diego pursuing Nadia, but she escapes with Roshan, jumping over the waterfalls so that Diego returns to Soto with no baby; the pack agrees to meet at Half Peakwhere Diego will produce the baby for Soto. The trio takes the baby up north and meets a fanatical flock of dodos on the way, from which they procure food for the baby. During the trek, however, Diego secretly meets up with two of his pack mates, who pass a message from Soto, demanding the baby; Diego sends them back with a message to Soto, promising the baby and Manny. The following morning, Sid takes the baby to a mud crater, where he meets two female sloths named Jennifer and Rachelwho he tries to court using the baby, which Manny takes back; Sid returns to the mud crater, only to find the sloths gone, Carl and Frank in their place. The rhinos pursue Sid, who runs into Diego and pleads to the saber to deter the rhinos: Diego pretends to have killed Sid to throw the rhinos off the trail and releases his grip once the rhinos leave; Diego then moves on with Manny and Sid. On the way, the group runs into a number of predicaments, from a changing landscape to freezing ice age blizzards. Further on, Diego spots the humans close by and suggests a shortcut to waylay Manny and Sid to an ambush point; this shortcut takes them through an ice cavern which leads to a cave adorned with paintings, all featuring animals. The baby reaches out to the painting, comforting Manny in that he lets go of his bitterness at having lost his wife and child. That night, while settling down by campfire, Diego begins to see the error of his ways in betraying Manny. After the others fall asleep, Scrat appears on the scene with his acorn, planning to thaw it from the ice, baking it instead by mistake into a hot kernel. Manny pins Diego to a rock wall, intending to kill him for his misdeeds, but Diego, having had a change of heart, agrees to help Manny escape the pack. Soto catches up with them and corners Manny, asking Diego to help bring the mammoth down; Diego defects from Soto and defends Manny at his own expense as Soto brings Diego down, wounding him. Soto then turns to Manny, intending to attack him alone, but the mammoth, in vengeance, knocks Soto into an ice wall, which jars loose a number of hanging icicles, impaling him. Sid and Manny abadone the Sabers.
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Keep kids learning with daily schedules and activities. Go to Wide Open School. Skip to Content. Different species can bond and work together for a righteous cause. Themes include courage and teamwork. The heroic animals a woolly mammoth and a sloth are unselfish, resourceful, tenacious, and compassionate. The villainous animals rhinos and tigers are malevolent and corrupt. The tigers fight other animals and humans as well as each other. A human mother is seen desperately trying to save her baby from the tigers. After she gets him to safety, she disappears into the sea and is never seen again. There are several threatening avalanches; an erupting volcano with the lava that endangers the heroes; characters falling from cliffs or sliding down mountainsides; and one character is impaled on icicles. Set limits for violence and more with Plus. Parents need to know that Ice Age is an animated feature aimed at young children that seems to have more than its share of scary scenes and frightening creatures. A mother drowns while trying to save her infant. Fang-toothed tigers are continually shown in close-up while on the attack. Animals are depicted as killers simply for the sake of evil, rather than as a means of survival. The human tribes featured are powerless in the face of a dangerous natural world. Set preferences and get age-appropriate recommendations with Common Sense Media Plus. Join now. Add your rating See all 31 parent reviews. Add your rating See all 46 kid reviews. ICE AGE is a clever, funny, and touching story of an unlikely trio of animals who band together to return a human baby to his family. The story is set when glaciers covered much of the earth, 20, years ago. As all of the other animals migrate south in search of food, three characters are moving in the opposite direction. In classic road movie fashion, they don't like or trust each other very much at the beginning and the journey becomes a psychological one as they share experiences and confidences that make them see each other and themselves very differently. But it's told with terrific energy, imagination, visual invention, and humor and it moves along very quickly. Interestingly, the three lead voices are provided by performers who began as stand-up comics rather than actors. Their voices are edgy and distinctive, perfectly matched with their characters. The computer animation in Ice Age is truly magnificent, from the majestic ice-covered mountains to the texture of the fur and feathers, the glint of the sun on ice, and soft sparkle of the snowflakes falling at night. The pristine settings convey a sense of vastness and promise that will make grown-up viewers pause to think about whether civilization has been all that civilized.