- Mexican Drug War
- Miami Drug War
- Wars, drug wars, black sites, and dictators on demand
- Miami Drug War
- Miami drug wars
Miami Drug War
The War on Drugs is a phrase used to refer to a government-led initiative that aims to stop illegal drug use, distribution and trade by dramatically increasing prison sentences for both drug dealers and users. The movement started in the s and is still evolving today. Over the years, people have had mixed reactions to the campaign, ranging from full-on support to claims that it has racist and political objectives. At that time, cocaine use had not yet been outlawed. In some states, laws to ban or regulate drugs were passed in the s, and the first congressional act to levy taxes on morphine and opium took place in The Smoking Opium Exclusion Act in banned the possession, importation and use of opium for smoking. However, opium could still be used as a medication. This was the first federal law to ban the non-medical use of a substance, although many states and counties had banned alcohol sales previously. InCongress passed the Harrison Act, which regulated and taxed the production, importation, and distribution of opiates and cocaine. Alcohol prohibition laws quickly followed. Inthe 18th Amendment was ratified, banning the manufacture, transportation or sale of intoxicating liquors, ushering in the Prohibition Era. The same year, Congress passed the National Prohibition Act also known as the Volstead Actwhich provided guidelines on how to federally enforce Prohibition. Prohibition lasted until December,when the 21st Amendment was ratified, overturning the 18th. This federal law placed a tax on the sale of cannabis, hemp, or marijuana. The Act was introduced by Rep. Robert L. Doughton of North Carolina and was drafted by Harry Anslinger. President Richard M. This statute calls for the regulation of certain drugs and substances. Schedule 1 drugs are considered the most dangerous, as they pose a very high risk for addiction with little evidence of medical benefits. The substances considered least likely to be addictive, such as cough medications with small amounts of codeine, fall into the Schedule 5 category. As part of the War on Drugs initiative, Nixon increased federal funding for drug-control agencies and proposed strict measures, such as mandatory prison sentencing, for drug crimes. Jerome Jaffe. This agency is a special police force committed to targeting illegal drug use and smuggling in the United States. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course, we did.
Wars, drug wars, black sites, and dictators on demand
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Miami Drug War
When the Mexican military began to intervene inthe government's principal goal was to reduce drug-related violence. Federal law enforcement has been reorganized at least five times since in various attempts to control corruption and reduce cartel violence. During that same period, there have been at least four elite special forces created as new, corruption-free soldiers who could do battle with Mexico's endemic bribery system. Due to its location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transhipment point for narcotics and contraband between Latin America and U. Mexican bootleggers supplied alcohol to the United States gangsters throughout the duration of the Prohibition in the United States and the onset of the illegal drug trade with the U. During the s and early s, Colombia 's Pablo Escobar was the main exporter of cocaine and dealt with organized criminal networks all over the world. When enforcement efforts intensified in South Florida and the Caribbean, the Colombian organizations formed partnerships with the Mexico-based traffickers to transport cocaine by land through Mexico into the United States. This was easily accomplished because Mexico had long been a major source of heroin and cannabisand drug traffickers from Mexico had already established an infrastructure that stood ready to serve the Colombia-based traffickers. By the mids, the organizations from Mexico were well-established and reliable transporters of Colombian cocaine. At first, the Mexican gangs were paid in cash for their transportation services, but in the late s, the Mexican transport organizations and the Colombian drug traffickers settled on a payment-in-product arrangement. This arrangement meant that organizations from Mexico became involved in the distribution, as well as the transportation of cocaine, and became formidable traffickers in their own right. In recent years, the Sinaloa Cartel and the Gulf Cartel have taken over trafficking cocaine from Colombia to the worldwide markets. The balance of power between the various Mexican cartels continually shifts as new organizations emerge and older ones weaken and collapse. A disruption in the system, such as the arrests or deaths of cartel leaders, generates bloodshed as rivals move in to exploit the power vacuum. While many factors have contributed to the escalating violence, security analysts in Mexico City trace the origins of the rising scourge to the unraveling of a longtime implicit arrangement between narcotics traffickers and governments controlled by the Institutional Revolutionary Party PRIwhich began to lose its grip on political power in the late s. The dominant party PRI ruled Mexico for around 70 years until During this time, drug cartels expanded their power and corruption, and anti-drug operations focused mainly on destroying marijuana and opium crops in mountainous regions. There were no large-scale high-profile military operations against their core structures in urban areas until the Mexican electionwhen the right-wing PAN party gained the presidency and started a crackdown on cartels in their own turf. In the year Vicente Fox, from the right-wing PAN partybecame the first Mexican president not to be from the PRI party that ruled Mexico for 70 years ; his presidency passed with relative peace, having a crime index not too different from that of previous administrations, and Mexican public opinion was mainly optimistic with the regime change, with Mexico even showing a general decline in homicide rates from to During this time, the Mexican criminal underworld was not widely known, as it later became with president Calderon and his War on Drugs. Key components of the upcoming conflict started to occur, like the Sinaloa Cartel attacks and advance on the Gulf Cartel 's main turf in Tamaulipas. It is estimated that in the first 8 months of between January and August about people died in Nuevo LaredoTamaulipas as a result of the fighting between the Gulf and Sinaloa cartels. This action is regarded as the first major retaliation made against the cartel violence, and is generally viewed as the starting point of the Mexican Drug War between the government and the drug cartels. The government was relatively successful in detaining drug lords; however, drug-related violence spiked high in contested area along the U. Some analysts, like U. However, in the first 14 months of his administration, between December and January23, people died in the conflict. In Mexico saw the rise of the controversial Grupos de Autodefensa Comunitaria self-defence groups in southern Mexico, para-military groups led by land-owners, ranchers and other rural businessmen that took up arms against the criminal groups that wanted to impose dominance in their towns, entering a new phase in the Mexican war on drugs. In Decemberthe Law of Internal Security was passed by legislation but was met with criticism, especially from the National Human Rights Commissionaccusing it gave the President a blank check.