- Opium Wars
- Mexican Drug War
- Miami Drug War
- Wars, drug wars, black sites, and dictators on demand
- War on drugs
Opium WarsTwo DEA agents watching as another Colombian body is taken away on a refrigeration truck. Most of the drugs came in through the Port of Miami, where the DEA may have been able to bust sixty kilograms of cocaine while six hundred more were successfully smuggled in. The rich and famous of Miami abused these drugs, and Miami was plagued by violence until the end of the s, when President George H. Bush 's crusade against drugs with millions of dollars would eventually end the violence. From to3, people were killed in the violence surrounding the drug trade. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Do you like this video? The majority of the drug traffickers were Colombiansand the Miami-Dade County morgue said that Colombians were like Dixie cups, as "you used them once, then threw them away". So many Colombians died that the government had to rent refrigeration trucks to store the bodies while the morgues processed scores of dead criminals, and the drug wars saw violence on every street corner, whether it was between rival gangs, or between gangs and the Drug Enforcement Administration or police. Categories :.
Mexican Drug War
The war on drugs is a largely unsuccessful campaign,  led by the U. The term was popularized by the media shortly after a press conference given on June 18,by President Richard Nixon —the day after publication of a special message from President Nixon to the Congress on Drug Abuse Prevention and Control —during which he declared drug abuse "public enemy number one". That message to the Congress included text about devoting more federal resources to the "prevention of new addicts, and the rehabilitation of those who are addicted", but that part did not receive the same public attention as the term "war on drugs". On May 13,Gil Kerlikowske —the Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy ONDCP —signaled that the Obama administration did not plan to significantly alter drug enforcement policy, but also that the administration would not use the term "War on Drugs", because Kerlikowske considers the term to be "counter-productive". In Junethe Global Commission on Drug Policy released a critical report on the War on Drugs, declaring: "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugsand years after President Nixon launched the US government's war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed. Morphine was first isolated [ specify ] inand hypodermic syringes were first constructed in This was particularly significant during the American Civil Warwhen wounded soldiers were treated with morphine. This led to widespread morphine addiction among veterans of the war. Untilproducts such as heroin were sold over-the-counter in a form of cough syrup. Doctors also prescribed heroin for irritable babies, bronchitis, insomnia, "nervous conditions," hysteria, menstrual cramps, and "vapors", leading to mass addiction. In addition, l laudanuman opioid, was a common part of the home medicine cabinet. In fiction, Conan Doyle portrayed the hero, Sherlock Holmesas a cocaine addict. Citizens [ specify ] did not reach a consensus on dealing with the long-term effects of hard drug usage until towards the end of the 19th century. The first U. The first local laws came as early as During World War I many soldiers were treated with morphine and became addicts. InPresident Franklin D. Inthe Marihuana Tax Act of was passed. Several scholars have claimed that the goal was to destroy the hemp industry,    largely as an effort of businessmen Andrew MellonRandolph Hearstand the Du Pont family. Mellon, United States Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America, had invested heavily in the DuPont 's new synthetic fiber, nylon, and considered [ dubious — discuss ] its success to depend on its replacement of the traditional resource, hemp. One reason for doubts about those claims is that the new decorticators did not perform fully satisfactorily in commercial production.
Miami Drug War
When the Mexican military began to intervene inthe government's principal goal was to reduce drug-related violence. Federal law enforcement has been reorganized at least five times since in various attempts to control corruption and reduce cartel violence. During that same period, there have been at least four elite special forces created as new, corruption-free soldiers who could do battle with Mexico's endemic bribery system. Due to its location, Mexico has long been used as a staging and transhipment point for narcotics and contraband between Latin America and U. Mexican bootleggers supplied alcohol to the United States gangsters throughout the duration of the Prohibition in the United States and the onset of the illegal drug trade with the U. During the s and early s, Colombia 's Pablo Escobar was the main exporter of cocaine and dealt with organized criminal networks all over the world. When enforcement efforts intensified in South Florida and the Caribbean, the Colombian organizations formed partnerships with the Mexico-based traffickers to transport cocaine by land through Mexico into the United States. This was easily accomplished because Mexico had long been a major source of heroin and cannabisand drug traffickers from Mexico had already established an infrastructure that stood ready to serve the Colombia-based traffickers. By the mids, the organizations from Mexico were well-established and reliable transporters of Colombian cocaine. At first, the Mexican gangs were paid in cash for their transportation services, but in the late s, the Mexican transport organizations and the Colombian drug traffickers settled on a payment-in-product arrangement. This arrangement meant that organizations from Mexico became involved in the distribution, as well as the transportation of cocaine, and became formidable traffickers in their own right. In recent years, the Sinaloa Cartel and the Gulf Cartel have taken over trafficking cocaine from Colombia to the worldwide markets. The balance of power between the various Mexican cartels continually shifts as new organizations emerge and older ones weaken and collapse. A disruption in the system, such as the arrests or deaths of cartel leaders, generates bloodshed as rivals move in to exploit the power vacuum. While many factors have contributed to the escalating violence, security analysts in Mexico City trace the origins of the rising scourge to the unraveling of a longtime implicit arrangement between narcotics traffickers and governments controlled by the Institutional Revolutionary Party PRIwhich began to lose its grip on political power in the late s. The dominant party PRI ruled Mexico for around 70 years until During this time, drug cartels expanded their power and corruption, and anti-drug operations focused mainly on destroying marijuana and opium crops in mountainous regions. There were no large-scale high-profile military operations against their core structures in urban areas until the Mexican electionwhen the right-wing PAN party gained the presidency and started a crackdown on cartels in their own turf. In the year Vicente Fox, from the right-wing PAN partybecame the first Mexican president not to be from the PRI party that ruled Mexico for 70 years ; his presidency passed with relative peace, having a crime index not too different from that of previous administrations, and Mexican public opinion was mainly optimistic with the regime change, with Mexico even showing a general decline in homicide rates from to During this time, the Mexican criminal underworld was not widely known, as it later became with president Calderon and his War on Drugs. Key components of the upcoming conflict started to occur, like the Sinaloa Cartel attacks and advance on the Gulf Cartel 's main turf in Tamaulipas. It is estimated that in the first 8 months of between January and August about people died in Nuevo LaredoTamaulipas as a result of the fighting between the Gulf and Sinaloa cartels. This action is regarded as the first major retaliation made against the cartel violence, and is generally viewed as the starting point of the Mexican Drug War between the government and the drug cartels. The government was relatively successful in detaining drug lords; however, drug-related violence spiked high in contested area along the U. Some analysts, like U. However, in the first 14 months of his administration, between December and January23, people died in the conflict. In Mexico saw the rise of the controversial Grupos de Autodefensa Comunitaria self-defence groups in southern Mexico, para-military groups led by land-owners, ranchers and other rural businessmen that took up arms against the criminal groups that wanted to impose dominance in their towns, entering a new phase in the Mexican war on drugs. In Decemberthe Law of Internal Security was passed by legislation but was met with criticism, especially from the National Human Rights Commissionaccusing it gave the President a blank check. One of his campaign promises was a controversial "strategy for peace", that is to give amnesty to all Mexicans involved in drug production and trafficking as a way to stop the drug trade and the resulting turf violence. According to him, the underlying issue is Mexico's great social disparities which previous governments' economic policies did not reduce. For law enforcement, he promised to do a referendum for the creation of a temporary national guard, merging elite parts of the Federal policeMilitary police, NavyChief of Staff's Guard and other top Mexican Security agencies, intending to finally give a legal framework to the military grade forces that have been doing police work in the last years. His approach is to pay more attention to the victims of violent crime and wants to revisit two previously taken strategies. Despite the new government's planned strategy changes,  during the first two months of the new presidency the violence between drug trafficking organizations have sustained the same levels as previous years. This strategy of avoiding armed confrontations while drug organizations still have violent altercations has risen controversy. Mexico is a major drug transit and producing country. It is the main foreign supplier of cannabis and an important entry point of South American cocaine  and Asian  methamphetamines to the United States. The U.
Wars, drug wars, black sites, and dictators on demand
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