Dmso toxicity

Dimethyl sulfoxide

The story of dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO is an unusual one. This by-product of the paper making process was discovered in Germany in the late 19th century. Scientists discovered that they could use DMSO as a transportation device to pass small molecules through skin. Since then, scientists have researched the potential benefits and risks of using DMSO to treat a variety of conditions. This research is ongoing. Some doctors began to use DMSO to treat cases of skin inflammation and diseases such as scleroderma because of its ability to penetrate skin. Scleroderma is a rare disorder that causes your skin to harden. Specifically, DMSO may help treat chemotherapy extravasations. This condition occurs when the drugs used to treat cancer leak and become trapped in surrounding tissues. It can cause symptoms that include:. However, more research is needed to assess the potential benefits and risks of using DMSO to treat these conditions. This is a chronic condition that causes inflammation in your bladder. To treat it, your doctor may flush DMSO into your bladder using a catheter over several of weeks. While DMSO has been approved for a variety of uses in dogs and horses, interstitial cystitis remains its only FDA-approved use in humans. The use of DMSO in animals has been linked to changes to their eye lenses. This has raised concerns about the potential of DMSO to damage human eyes. More research is needed to assess these risks. Other reported side effects from DMSO tend to be minor. The most commonly reported side effect is a strong garlic flavor in your mouth for several hours after you have been treated with it. Your skin may also give off a garlic-like odor for up to 72 hours after being treated.

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Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on Aug 12, Along with its needed effects, dimethyl sulfoxide may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention. Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur while taking dimethyl sulfoxide:. Some patients may have some discomfort during the time this medicine is being put into the bladder. However, the discomfort usually becomes less each time the medicine is used. Dimethyl sulfoxide may cause you to have a garlic-like taste within a few minutes after the medicine is put into the bladder. This effect may last for several hours. It may also cause your breath and skin to have a garlic-like odor, which may last up to 72 hours. For Healthcare Professionals Applies to dimethyl sulfoxide: compounding liquid, irrigation solution, topical solution. Frequency not reported : Odor on skin may remain for 72 hours [ Ref ]. Frequency not reported : Garlic-like taste a few minutes after instillationodor on breath may remain for 72 hours [ Ref ]. Frequency not reported : Chemical cystitis [ Ref ]. Frequency not reported : Severe discomfort on administration [ Ref ]. Dimethyl Sulfoxide dimethyl sulfoxide. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances. Some side effects may not be reported. You may report them to the FDA. Other brands: RimsoCryoserv.

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A conference between the Food and Drug Administration and the pharmaceutical companies who were involved in the research was called because lens changes had been observed in a number of mammalian species. No changes ha been observed in man or any primates. The FDA and the pharmaceutical companies agreed, because there had been no pretreatment examinations of eyes and a large number of patients were under therapy, to discontinue the clinical studies: Somehow, at this time, DMSO gained a reputation of extreme toxicity, comparable to that of thalidomide and some other drugs that had previously run into major toxicology problems. Many of us in the pharmaceutical industry felt that this reputation was undeserved. A refractive index change in the lens not an opacity had been observed after? No microscopic or chemical differences could be found between the lenses of the treated animals am the controls. In the affected animals, there appeared two distinct zones of different refraction. This could easily by observed with an ophthalmoscope and with the slit lamp. It appeared to be a dose-related effect, and it diminished as the dose was reduced. It is noteworthy that the effect was produced at 50 to l00 times the usual human therapeutic dose. In November, there had been no cases of confirmed eye damage or significant complaints in the studies of any of the pharmaceutical firms. Pre-treatment examinations of eyes had not been performed. We all felt that to re-examine all the patients who had been under treatment at this stage would be fruitless exercise, because of the age of many of the patients and their preexisting eye problems. We elected, therefore, to check certain long-term patients on high doses. Jacob and Rosenbaum, in Portland, Oregon, had 32 patients examined by ophthalmologists connected with the University of Oregon Medical School. These had been treated for from 3 to 19 months, at an average dose of 30 g DMSO per day. None of these showed any of the characteristic lens changes that had been seen in the animals. One patient in Seattle was thoroughly checked. He had by chance had a complete pretreatment examination performed by an ophthalmologist several months prior to his neck injury. He was 19 years old, and at the date of his post-treatment exam he had received 60 g DMSO per day for 20 months. His follow-up exam was completely negative. This included tonometry, visual field, refraction, and slit lamp examination. Scherbel, at Cleveland Clinic, had under treatment 44 cases of scleroderma. Their treatment was still continued under the new FDA rules. Some were treated for as long as 23 months. Many lens abnormalities were observed in this group of patients, but none of those characteristically observed in the DMSO-treated animals. Therefore, the results of the examination of scleroderma cases were somewhat inconclusive. Duringthe pharmaceutical companies continued to collect case reports and no real toxicity of any kind was being observed. Merck and Company gradually collected 17, cases.

DMSO Health & Safety


This colorless liquid is an important polar aprotic solvent that dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in a wide range of organic solvents as well as water. It has a relatively high boiling point. DMSO has the unusual property that many individuals perceive a garlic -like taste in the mouth after contact with the skin. In terms of chemical structure, the molecule has idealized C s symmetry. It has a trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry consistent with other three-coordinate S IV compounds, [4] with a nonbonded electron pair on the approximately tetrahedral sulfur atom. It was first synthesized in by the Russian scientist Alexander Zaytsevwho reported his findings in The sulfur center in DMSO is nucleophilic toward soft electrophiles and the oxygen is nucleophilic toward hard electrophiles. This salt can be deprotonated with sodium hydride to form the sulfur ylide :. For this reason, the basicities of many weakly basic organic compounds have been examined in this solvent. Deprotonation of DMSO requires strong bases like lithium diisopropylamide and sodium hydride. Stabilization of the resultant carbanion is provided by the S O R group. The sodium derivative of DMSO formed in this way is referred to as dimsyl sodium. It is a base, e. It is also a potent nucleophile. Related to its ability to dissolve many salts, DMSO is a common ligand in coordination chemistry. In this complex, three DMSO ligands are bonded to ruthenium through sulfur. The fourth DMSO is bonded through oxygen. In general, the oxygen-bonded mode is more common. DMSO is a polar aprotic solvent and is less toxic than other members of this class, such as dimethylformamidedimethylacetamideN -methylpyrrolidoneand HMPA. DMSO is frequently used as a solvent for chemical reactions involving salts, most notably Finkelstein reactions and other nucleophilic substitutions. It is also extensively used as an extractant in biochemistry and cell biology.

Unexpected low-dose toxicity of the universal solvent DMSO.

At Burst Biologics, we see a lot of double-edged swords throughout science and medicine. Medicine can treat all kinds of conditions but has potential side effects. Surgery carries the risk of complications, even if it means a new lease on life. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a colorless liquid discovered in 19th century Germany as a byproduct of wood pulp when producing paper. One of its most notable properties is its ability to permeate across cell membranes. This quickly proved useful for dermatological conditions like skin inflammation, or scleroderma. The year marked the first trial of DMSO usage to prevent freezing damage to living cells. However, all these decades later, the chemical is still only approved by the FDA for a single function. On the positive side, DMSO can permeate across cell membranes, allowing it to inhibit intracellular ice formation. But even with all these great properties, DMSO has its drawbacks. The chemical is associated with possible toxicity and a range of serious side effects. Also, prolonged exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide directly impacts cellular function and growth. The same effect can occur in a clinical setting. Once cells begin to thaw, they are susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of dimethyl sulfoxide. With that in mind, how exactly does this chemical affect patients in the real world? As serious as these conditions are, this is only a partial list of the identified ARs related to DMSO, based on many studies centered around the physiological role of the chemical in ARsfrom neurotoxic reactions to shock. Studies also show that the adverse effects are cumulative. Patients receiving multi-dose therapies containing DMSO may suffer progressively more severe symptoms over time. In any allograft or stem cell transplantation procedure, there are many components involved. Some of these factors, such as dead cell debris after thaw or the low temperature of infused products, can also lead to ARs. If we know that DMSO has the potential to be harmful to patients, the next question is, what do we do with that information? After all, cryopreservation is still a necessity if we want patients to enjoy the benefits of allografts and tissue supplementation. Here are four other widely discussed strategies for minimizing adverse reactions to dimethyl sulfoxide in cryopreserved grafts:. The first three solutions hold some promise, but the bottom line is, nothing is safer than simply avoiding DMSO altogether. We developed a patent-pending process to preserve product integrity and address the potentially harmful agent of DMSO in our cryopreservation media. Our internal team has demonstrated the efficacy of this DMSO-free cryopreservation medium, which enlists USP grade non-toxic ingredients. Ultimately, the products do their job well without even a hint of dimethyl sulfoxide. Learn more about our committment to being DMSO-free. Previous Next.

IV Chelation Therapy



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