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Manage Parts, Bill of Materials, Vendors & PurchasesA bill of materials or product structure sometimes bill of materialBOM or associated list is a list of the raw materials, sub-assemblies, intermediate assemblies, sub-components, parts, and the quantities of each needed to manufacture an end product. A BOM may be used for communication between manufacturing partners or confined to a single manufacturing plant. A bill of materials is often tied to a production order whose issuance may generate reservations for components in the bill of materials that are in stock and requisitions for components that are not in stock. A BOM can define products as they are designed engineering bill of materialsas they are ordered sales bill of materialsas they are built manufacturing bill of materialsor as they are maintained service bill of materials. The different types of BOMs depend on the business need and use for which they are intended. In process industriesthe BOM is also known as the formularecipeor ingredients list. The phrase "bill of material" or "BOM" is frequently used by engineers attributively to refer not to the literal bill, but to the current production configuration of a product, to distinguish it from modified or improved versions under study or in test. Sometimes the term "pseudo-bill of materials" or "pseudo-BOM" is used to refer to a more flexible or simplified version. Often a place-holder part number is used to represent a group of related usually standard parts that have common attributes and are interchangeable in the context of this BOM. In electronics, the BOM represents the list of components used on the printed wiring board or printed circuit board. Once the design of the circuit is completed, the BOM list is passed on to the PCB layout engineer as well as the component engineer who will procure the components required for the design. BOMs are of hierarchical naturewith the top level representing the finished product which may be a sub-assembly or a completed item. The first hierarchical databases were developed for automating bills of materials for manufacturing organizations in the early s. At present, this BOM is used as a data base to identify the many parts and their codes in automobile manufacturing companies. A bill of materials "implosion" links component pieces to a major assembly, while a bill of materials "explosion" breaks apart each assembly or sub-assembly into its component parts. A BOM can also be visually represented by a product structure tree, although they are rarely used in the workplace. For each product, the time phased product structure shows the sequence and duration of each operation. A configurable bill of materials CBOM is a form of BOM used by industries that have multiple options and highly configurable products e. The CBOM is used to dynamically create "end-items" that a company sells. The benefit of using CBOM structure is that it reduces the work-effort needed to maintain product structures. The configurable BOM is most frequently driven by "configurator" software, however it can be enabled manually manual maintenance is infrequent because it is unwieldy to manage the number of permutations and combinations of possible configurations. While most configurators utilize top-down hierarchical rules syntax to find appropriate modular BOMs, maintenance of very similar BOMs i. To decide which assembly variant of the parts or components is to be chosen, they are attributed by the product options which are the characteristic features of the product. If the options of the product build an ideal Boolean algebra it is possible to describe the connection between parts and product variants with a Boolean expression, which refers to a subset of the set of products. Parts which will not be assembled at all in one or more variants are typically marked as "DNP" for "do not populate" or "do not place" in the affected variants. A multi-level bill of materials BOMreferred to as an indented BOM, is a bill of materials that lists the assemblies, components, and parts required to make a product in a parent-child, top-down method. It provides a display of all items that are in parent-children relationships. When an item is a sub-component, of a parent component, it can in-turn have its own child components, and so on.
In Arena PLM, part data and sourcing information are linked together so users can quickly view the manufacturing information for each item on a BOM. Enlarge image. Regardless of whether you use Excel spreadsheets or a cloud-based bill of materials product, your BOMs must contain complete and accurate information in order to be useful in building quality products. The BOM spreadsheet examples below and the Arena article on managing your bills of materials in Excel provide valuable information to help keep your BOMs in control. The Device Master Record DMR is an all-encompassing collection of documents and records including device specifications, process specifications, quality assurance procedures, and packaging and labeling specifications mandated by 21 CFR Part Scrap and rework costs are a manufacturing reality impacting organizations across all industries and product lines. The alternatives to managing your product bill of materials BOM in fragile, formula-laden Excel spreadsheets that are duplicated across server folders and email inboxes. Contact Us Login Get Demo. Get Demo. Introduction Manufacturers rely on the information that is included in the bill of materials BOM to build a product. The bill of materials typically includes part names, part numbers, part revisions and the quantities required to build an assembly. Thorough BOMs can include more descriptive information too, for example, the …. Thorough BOMs can include more descriptive information too, for example, the unit of measure or procurement type. To manage what can be a tremendous amount of information, companies often use either Excel spreadsheets or a dedicated BOM management system like Arena PLM. Below are examples of how a bill of materials for a GPS navigation product would look in each system. Excel Spreadsheet Examples of Bills of Materials BOMs The great thing about using spreadsheets for your bill of materials is that they are flexible and can be formatted however you like. It contains BOM level, part number, part name, revision, quantity and reference designators. It is helpful to have unit of measure and BOM notes on a bill of materials as well. The first line, with a BOM level of zero, is the top-level product or assembly to which everything else in the bill of materials reports. When your top-level product or assembly information level zero is included in the header, it should not be repeated below.
A bill of materials BOM serves as a complete list of all the materials and parts—virtually every item—that a manufacturer needs to create a certain product. To be effective, the BOM needs to include not only the raw materials but also any subassemblies, subcomponents, and parts—and the precise quantities of each. The exact format for a BOM will vary depending on the nature of the product being manufactured, but it is typical for two distinctly different types of BOM to be associated with each product—one used for the engineering phase when a product is first being developed, and another type of BOM used when the product rolls out to mass production for shipping to customers. You'll need to have certain information to create a BOM. Among the questions you should be asking are as follows:. The engineering bill of materials EBOM defines the finished product as it was originally designed. It lists the items, parts, components, subassemblies, and assemblies in the product as engineering designed it. For a finished product, more than one EBOM may be created. A precise and accurate EBOM is essential, especially for a new product, since this is the document that ensures the correct materials and parts—in the correct quantities—are available when the item is being manufactured. To ensure that the parts are available when required, the purchasing department needs information on what vendors to purchase items from and how much lead time is required for each ordered part. The purchasing department will negotiate to obtain the best price for each part in efforts to reduce the overall cost of the finished product. The ramifications of errors in the EBOM are serious. Incorrect quantities can cause production to be stopped. Any delay can lead to financial loss as the manufacturer attempts to find missing parts or postpones manufacturing to start a different production order. The manufacturing bill of materials MBOM contains information on all the parts and assemblies required to build a complete and shippable product. This includes all the packaging materials required to ship the finished product to the customer. The MBOM includes not only all the information required for manufacturing but also any processes that must be performed on the item before it is completed. When a materials resource planning MRP analysis is run, the details of the MBOM are used to calculate when materials need to be purchased and when the manufacturing order needs to start, based on the suggested delivery date to the customer. Several elements are involved in creating an MBOM. For some companies, the MBOM must have a validity date range. For example, when new products are being tested, the manufacturer may want to restrict the MBOM's use to one or two months. If, after the test period, the product requires some modification to either key elements or to the packaging, the MBOM can be changed and a new validity date can be established.
Using Excel for Bill of Materials (BOM) Management
Want to see what MasterControl has done for great organizations? Explore our many case studies. We are growing fast and looking for innovative and creative people to join the team. Learn about the variety of partnerships and strategic benefits available in our partner network. A BOM system is the crux of any quality and compliance process. An automated BOM system reduces audit time and findings, and a decreases risk of product recalls. Hundreds of companies around the world use MasterControl to automate core business processes and document management activities to promote collaboration, improve decision making, and accelerate time to market. Here's how bill of materials software systems from MasterControl streamlines the handling of the bill of materials management to prevent potential problems. Managing BOMs systems with spreadsheets is extremely tedious and prone to error, especially when distributed product development teams, contract manufacturers, or outside sources are involved. All departments get an updated, accurate view of revision levels of every component in their particular configurations. Documents defining components are easily viewed from the BOM, ensuring that the right documents and revisions are used in manufacturing. Changes aren't communicated through the supply chain rapidly enough, leading to the wrong revision of a component being built or excessive scrapping and reworking of products. Manually mailing, emailing or faxing changes is time consuming and problematic which may disturb the whole bill of materials system. The bill of materials software from MasterControl is traceable and secure, and provides instantaneous electronic communication. All parties involved in the supply chain are accountable for actions once changes are approved and communicated. Without a bill of materials system, collaborating with contract manufacturers is inefficient, slow and costly. Difficulties frequently arise when allowing or restricting various suppliers' access to collaborations. Authorized suppliers can have restricted access to the bill of materials software system from MasterControl, allowing them to make markups to design files and associated BOMs at any point in the design process designated by the user. This saves time and money by eliminating the need to implement suppliers' modifications into reworked designs after manufacturing has commenced. The bill of materials software system from MasterControl estimates the cost of the final product and sub-assemblies, allowing users to focus design changes on the most expensive components. BOMs can be sent on collaboration routes from the BOM management software, allowing users to redline and propose changes without affecting the approved version. Familiar Structure: MasterControl's bill of materials system provides a configurable yet consistent approach to creating, viewing and handling BOMs. Users already accustomed to working with BOMs will be able to effortlessly organize product data using a familiar tool. Different teams or departments can all have access to BOMs throughout the design process. PDX Product Data eXchange Files: The PDX file format, an industry standard, allows users to share product data with design and manufacturing partners that do not have direct access to the MasterControl system, simplifying supply chain communications. Establish Connections and Track Changes: The 'where-used' feature displays exactly where a part is used across multiple BOMs, permitting users to determine the impact of a single part change and updating subsequent changes where needed. Assembly or sub-assembly InfoCards can be readily located in the MasterControl's bill of materials system so users are aware of parts under construction and sub-assemblies to which particular components belong. Bulk Replace: A single part used in many locations can be replaced simultaneously by using MasterControl's BOM software to select assemblies to be updated, components to be substituted or components that require new revisions. MasterControl can also add documents and non-geometric parts grease, labels, etc. Advanced Analytics Exporting: New where-used reports are created for all single parts and assemblies to show every occurrence of a given item number's utilization. Hyperlinks within the reports connect to associated BOM management records in the system. For more information about BOM software systems, please feel free to contact a MasterControl representative.