Bengali genetics

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Genetic studies on Sinhalese

Bangladesh is the eighth-most populated country in the world with almost 2. According to the revision of the World Population Prospects [3] [4]the population stood at , in There are many dialects of Bengali spoken throughout the region. The dialect spoken by those in Chittagong and Sylhet are particularly distinctive. The population is estimated at million [3] [4]. Bangladesh has the one of the highest population density in the world. The total fertility rate TFR has been reduced by more than two thirds since Independence. Current TFR in Bangladesh is 2. At this TFR and without migration, country's population will eventually be neither growing nor shrinking, once the top of its age pyramid fills in. The total population was , which makes Bangladesh the eighth-most populous country in the world. The annual population growth was 1. Bangladesh had high rates of population growth in the s and s. Since then however it has seen significant reduction in its total fertility rate. Over a period of three decades it dropped from almost 7 to 2. The sprawling mega-city of Dhaka has a huge population, but the majority of the people nonetheless still live in villages in rural areas. The vast majority about This group also spans the neighboring Indian province of West Bengal. Communities of Persian and Iranic peoples mainly reside in the city of Chittagong and are the descendants of migrants that immigrated during the Pakistani dominion over Bangladeshand also from the British Partition of Some are descendants of the Persian settlers during the medieval era of the Bengal Sultanatemost Iranic peoples living in Chittagong are either mainly or fully integrated into Bengali society, and have even influenced the Chittagonian language as a whole. Biharis are Urdu -speaking, non-Bengalis who emigrated from the state of Bihar and other parts of northern India during the partition. They are concentrated in the Dhaka and Rangpur areas and number someTheir population declined from about 1 million in toin the late s. Biharis were granted Bangladeshi citizenship and voting rights in Bangladesh's tribal population was enumerated atin the census. They are of Sino-Tibetan descent and differ markedly in their social customs, religion, language and level of development. They speak Tibeto-Burman languages and most are Buddhist or Hindu. There are small communities of Meitei people in the Sylhet district, which is close to the Meitei homeland across the border in ManipurIndia. There is a small population of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar near the border in the southeast. There are 28, living in two UN refugee camps in Cox's Bazar as well as some"unregistered people of concern" living outside of the camps. Bangladesh seeks to repatriate the refugees back to Myanmar. Bangladesh has the world's highest frequency of the M form of mitochondrial DNA. This genetic variant spans many continents, and is the single most common mtDNA haplogroup in Asia.

Europeans and Indians – divided or united by DNA?

Bengalimajority population of Bengalthe region of northeastern South Asia that generally corresponds to the country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. The Bengali people speak dialects of Bangla—as they call the Bengali language —which belongs to the Indo-Aryan group of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. The Bengali are of diverse origin, having emerged from the confluence of various communities that entered the region over the course of many centuries. The earliest inhabitants of the region are believed to have been the Vedda from Sri Lanka. Later the Vedda were joined by Mediterranean peoples who spoke Indo-European languages. In the 8th century peoples of ArabTurkish, and Persian descent began to enter the area. Eventually all these groups merged to become the people now known as Bengali. This religious difference traces largely to the 13th century, when Muslim forces invaded the region from the northwest. At the time, the population of Bengal comprised a mixture of Hindus and Buddhists. Following the arrival of the Muslims, most of the residents of eastern Bengal converted to Islam, while Hinduism became the predominant religion in the western region. In the early 21st century the majority of the Bengali population remained rural, in both Bangladesh and West Bengal. Of the rural Bengali, a large portion are engaged in agriculture, their principal crops being rice and jute, followed by assorted pulses legumes and oilseeds. In the rural contextmen are typically responsible for most of the work outside the home, while women manage domestic matters. Labour is less clearly divided in urban areas, however; there many middle- and upper-class women pursue careers in professions such as medicine and education. Whether Hindu or Muslim, the Bengali people engage in a broad spectrum of artistic activity. Both Hindus and Muslims share the Hindustani classical music and dance tradition, while they also display a strong penchant for nonclassical popular forms. The Bengali of Bangladesh, for instance, created many unique popular music genressuch as baul and marfatithat have remained without true equivalents outside the country. Meanwhile, the Bengali of West Bengal produced internationally acclaimed films, most of which have a prominent musical component. The historical prevalence of Islamic artsespecially in Bangladesh, is evident in the many mosques, mausoleums, forts, and gateways that have survived from the Mughal period 16th—18th century. Like Muslim architecture elsewhere in South Asia, these structures are characterized by the pointed archthe domeand the minaret. The best-preserved example is the dome mosque at Bagerhat in southern Bangladesh. The ruins of Lalbagh Fort, an incomplete 17th-century Mughal palace at Dhakaalso provide some idea of the older Islamic architectural traditions in Bengal. Bengali literature dates to before the 12th century. The Caitanya movementan intensely emotional form of Hinduism inspired by the medieval saint Caitanya —shaped the subsequent development of Bengali poetry until the early 19th century, when contact with the West sparked a vigorous creative synthesis. The modern period has produced, among others, the Nobel Prize -winning poet Rabindranath Tagore. Important Hindu Bengali holidays include the annual festivals devoted to various Hindu deities, most notably ShivaKaliDurgaLakshmiand Sarasvati.

Calculate the optimal Heart Parameter

Here are the HarappaWorld Admixture results for the Bengalis which you can also see in a spreadsheet. Razib wanted to know the origin of the East Asian ancestry among the Bengalis. I used the Georgians as a proxy for West Asian ancestry. The number of SNPs was about 85, The results were broadly similar. I am showing only the first 12 ancestral components since all the rest were less than 0. So it's not showing actual ancestry but broad affinity. Also, the exact percentages are not important and can vary when I change the parameters of the analysis. Just look at the broad trends. The Eastern Eurasian ethnicity most closely related to Bengalis is Burmese. Interestingly, there is a pattern of a small amount of Siberian ancestry among these Bengalis. Let's add all the Siberian and Russian Far East groups. Good analysis; but I am not able to conclude much. You can check the HarappaWorld admixture results for the various southwestern Chinese groups. Zack thank you very much for providing the analysis on Bengalis Good day If we discount the Burmese, how close would the Bengal Brahmans would be to me? Is an IBD check possible? There are supposed to be two main types of Brahmans in Bengal - Kolanch supposed to be near Kannauj and Saptashati. Are all the Bengal Brahmans in your data-set the former? If so, they should be quite close to me, as both my paternal Madarpur, UP and maternal Jajmau, UP lines 'claim' [such claims are common but with little or no evidence] Kannaujia ancestry prior to the Mughal period. Have you tried running HarappaWorld Oracle on your admixture results? Chromopainter analysis was a long time ago but I think I had a couple of Bengali Brahmins in there too, you can check your chunkcount results in the individual file. The Nepalese A samples also includes one Terai sample. Must be a Terai Brahmin if you ask me. That sample would probably be the closest to you. Since they are a Tibeto Burman group, I would assume with the Burmese. Xing had a couple of Magar samples I believe. The Sherpas should cluster with the Tibetans. Various North Nepal groups close to the mountains should cluster with the Tibetans. Essentially speaking, Tibetans and Tibeto Burmans are a different population at least based on where they cluster. It is interesting that, though they claim Brahmin affiliations, genetically the Vaidyas seem more similar to Bengali Muslims in their admixture. This analysis seems to suggest that migrations from northern India mostly affected Bengali Brahmins, and not the other caste groups in Bengal. This again confirming historic accounts of a northern provenance of Bengali Brahmins coupled with limited gene flow across caste lines. Bengalis Posted by Zack on August 7,

Demographics of Bangladesh

I did some more data analysis. Added Tibetans, etc. Two notes. They seem different from Nagas, who are more Tibetan. He, and therefore myself, carried Y lineage R1a1a, the lord of the paternal lineages. That was not that great a surprise. The mtDNA was a surprise. It was G1a2. This was curious to me since Bangladesh has some of the highest frequencies in the world of haplogroups M, the subhaplogroups in question being mostly restricted to South Asia. So this is clearly it is a rare haplogroup in the region. Haplogroup F seems to have a similar distribution, as does DB. They are all mostly East Asian. Looking at the Y chromosome haplogroups in the Genomes there are two of O2 and O3, and one of C3, which are clearly of Southeast Asian origin. O2 is interesting because it is found at very high frequencies among the Austro-Asiatic populations in South Asia, whether it be the Khasi, or Munda groups general O2a. If you know much about the ethnolinguistic of South Asia you know that the two major language families are Indo-Aryan and Dravidian. But, there are other groups. In the northwest you have various other Indo-European speaking populations, and along the northern and northeast fringe, you have Tibeto-Burman languages being spoken. But most anomolous is the distribution of Austro-Asiatic languages. The most numerous Austro-Asiatic language in the world today is Vietnamese, followed by the language of the Khmers. The indigenous people of the deep forests of the Malay peninsula, including the Negritos, speaking Austro-Asiatic languages. As one moves west there are Austro-Asiatic languages in Burma, such as Mon, which used to be far more common. And in India there are two groups, the language of the Khasi of the northeast, which seems to share some affinity with the Palaungic dialects of interior Burma and southern China, and the Munda languages farthest west which seem very distinct from all the other branches. The genetics seems to suggest that the Munda tribes do have East Asian ancestry, but it is almost totally male-mediated. The Khasi of the hills north of Bangladeshi occupy a different position, with both maternal and paternal East Asian heritage, as well as much higher genome-wide ancestry that is not South Asian. At this point, I am convinced that the Austro-Asiatic language groups came into South Asia from the east to the west. Unlike the Austro-Asiatic group, these peoples tend to occupy only the periphery of South Asia, the far north and east. Finally, there are historically attested Tai peoples who migrated into South Asia. The most famous of these are the Ahoms of Assam. In Burma, the Tai migrations resulted in the Shan states of the uplands, though the Burman and Mon polities were able to fight off the attempts at take over. Ultimately the Ahom became totally Indianized. Their traditional language became relegated to ritual, and they adopted the Indo-Aryan Assamese language.

Tag: Bengali genetics

Discover more about your ethnicity with AncestryDNA. The mighty mountain ranges of the Himalaya, Hindu Kush and Karakoram were formed here around 75 million years ago when the floating Indian tectonic plate smashed into southern Asia, giving birth to the world's tallest mountains peaks. Those migrants would have trekked along the outline of the Indian subcontinent and then farther east into Southeast Asia, eventually reaching Australia. The indigenous people of the Andaman Islands in the Indian Ocean are thought to have been isolated there during this initial migration, after ocean levels rose. Austroasiatic populations are believed to have moved south from China, eventually spreading west into India and also using water routes to other agricultural zones, including the islands of the South Pacific. The invention of farming in the Middle East led to the spread of Neolithic people into Pakistan and northern India. About B. Even today, there is a gradient of ancestry from the Middle East that ranges from the highest concentrations in the north to the lowest in the south of India. These Neolithic people founded the great Indus Valley Civilization. Isolated by nearly impenetrable mountains to the north, India cultivated its own unique culture over the millennia. Almost as old as Indian civilization itself, the caste system of social hierarchy determined a person's status and rights from birth. The caste system was officially outlawed inand great strides have been made in purging it from contemporary Indian society. Hinduism and Buddhism, the world's third- and fourth-largest religions, were both born in India. Exported to Asia, Buddhism was an important part of the cultural fabric of Imperial China and is the predominant religion in most of Southeast Asia today. India was gradually conquered by the British East India Company in the 18th and 19th centuries, and it was a British colony until Mohandas Gandhi became one of the key players in achieving Indian independence. Realizing that armed resistance against the British was dangerous and probably futile, he began a campaign of nonviolent civil disobedience and protest that helped end British colonial rule. Modern-day Nepal is a mixture of ethnic groups that lived in several different historical kingdoms. The Sherpas, famous for their mountaineering skills, come from Nepal. Nepal's fierce Gurkha soldiers resisted encroachments of the British East India Company, earning the grudging respect of the British. Inthe Nepali monarch ended the century-old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government. Three main ethnic groups make up the majority of the population. The Ngalops are of Tibetan origin and thought to have migrated to Bhutan in the 8th or 9th century A. The Sharchops are considered the indigenous people of Bhutan, descendants of early settlers who migrated from the east centuries before the Ngalops. The Lhotsampas emigrated from Nepal in the 19th and 20th centuries. Ruled at various times by Persians, Greeks, Arabs and Turks, Pakistan is home to a diverse mix of cultures and ethnic groups. The Balochi, descended from the Persians who settled the area centuries ago, live in the southern half of Pakistan and along the coast. The Brahui, a Sunni Muslim tribe living in the same region, speak a Dravidian language related to languages found in the distant southern reaches of India, leaving historians to wonder how they got there. The Pashtun are a tribal society in the rugged border between Pakistan and Afghanistan, and the Burusho, or Hunza, live in the foothills of the Hindu Kush and speak a unique language unrelated to any other. This division led to one of the largest single migrations in history, as 14 million people tried to cross borders according to their religious ties. Millions followed the Grand Trunk Road and Railway in the Kashmir region, and hundreds of thousands were killed in the violence that engulfed the area. Sectarian violence has subsided for the most part, but there are still tense border disagreements between India and Pakistan, particularly over the Kashmir region in the Karakoram foothills. After years of border disputes and war, East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh in Sri Lanka is an island nation divided into two groups: the majority Buddhist Sinhalese in the south and the minority Hindu Tamils in the north.

জীববিজ্ঞান : জীবের বংশগতি ও বিবর্তন (Genetics and Evolution) [SSC]

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