Bengali genetics

Tag: Bengali genetics

Here are the HarappaWorld Admixture results for the Bengalis which you can also see in a spreadsheet. Razib wanted to know the origin of the East Asian ancestry among the Bengalis. I used the Georgians as a proxy for West Asian ancestry. The number of SNPs was about 85, The results were broadly similar. I am showing only the first 12 ancestral components since all the rest were less than 0. So it's not showing actual ancestry but broad affinity. Also, the exact percentages are not important and can vary when I change the parameters of the analysis. Just look at the broad trends. The Eastern Eurasian ethnicity most closely related to Bengalis is Burmese. Interestingly, there is a pattern of a small amount of Siberian ancestry among these Bengalis. Let's add all the Siberian and Russian Far East groups. Good analysis; but I am not able to conclude much. You can check the HarappaWorld admixture results for the various southwestern Chinese groups. Zack thank you very much for providing the analysis on Bengalis Good day If we discount the Burmese, how close would the Bengal Brahmans would be to me? Is an IBD check possible? There are supposed to be two main types of Brahmans in Bengal - Kolanch supposed to be near Kannauj and Saptashati. Are all the Bengal Brahmans in your data-set the former? If so, they should be quite close to me, as both my paternal Madarpur, UP and maternal Jajmau, UP lines 'claim' [such claims are common but with little or no evidence] Kannaujia ancestry prior to the Mughal period. Have you tried running HarappaWorld Oracle on your admixture results? Chromopainter analysis was a long time ago but I think I had a couple of Bengali Brahmins in there too, you can check your chunkcount results in the individual file. The Nepalese A samples also includes one Terai sample. Must be a Terai Brahmin if you ask me. That sample would probably be the closest to you. Since they are a Tibeto Burman group, I would assume with the Burmese. Xing had a couple of Magar samples I believe. The Sherpas should cluster with the Tibetans. Various North Nepal groups close to the mountains should cluster with the Tibetans. Essentially speaking, Tibetans and Tibeto Burmans are a different population at least based on where they cluster. It is interesting that, though they claim Brahmin affiliations, genetically the Vaidyas seem more similar to Bengali Muslims in their admixture. This analysis seems to suggest that migrations from northern India mostly affected Bengali Brahmins, and not the other caste groups in Bengal. This again confirming historic accounts of a northern provenance of Bengali Brahmins coupled with limited gene flow across caste lines. Bengalis Posted by Zack on August 7, Let's take a look at the Bengali participants of the Harappa Ancestry Project. Admixture bengalibrahmineast-asianharappaworldmuslimsiberian. Zack August 7, at pm. Nirjhar August 8, at am.

Demographics of Bangladesh

Bengalimajority population of Bengalthe region of northeastern South Asia that generally corresponds to the country of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. The Bengali people speak dialects of Bangla—as they call the Bengali language —which belongs to the Indo-Aryan group of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. The Bengali are of diverse origin, having emerged from the confluence of various communities that entered the region over the course of many centuries. The earliest inhabitants of the region are believed to have been the Vedda from Sri Lanka. Later the Vedda were joined by Mediterranean peoples who spoke Indo-European languages. In the 8th century peoples of ArabTurkish, and Persian descent began to enter the area. Eventually all these groups merged to become the people now known as Bengali. This religious difference traces largely to the 13th century, when Muslim forces invaded the region from the northwest. At the time, the population of Bengal comprised a mixture of Hindus and Buddhists. Following the arrival of the Muslims, most of the residents of eastern Bengal converted to Islam, while Hinduism became the predominant religion in the western region. In the early 21st century the majority of the Bengali population remained rural, in both Bangladesh and West Bengal. Of the rural Bengali, a large portion are engaged in agriculture, their principal crops being rice and jute, followed by assorted pulses legumes and oilseeds. In the rural contextmen are typically responsible for most of the work outside the home, while women manage domestic matters. Labour is less clearly divided in urban areas, however; there many middle- and upper-class women pursue careers in professions such as medicine and education. Whether Hindu or Muslim, the Bengali people engage in a broad spectrum of artistic activity. Both Hindus and Muslims share the Hindustani classical music and dance tradition, while they also display a strong penchant for nonclassical popular forms. The Bengali of Bangladesh, for instance, created many unique popular music genressuch as baul and marfatithat have remained without true equivalents outside the country. Meanwhile, the Bengali of West Bengal produced internationally acclaimed films, most of which have a prominent musical component. The historical prevalence of Islamic artsespecially in Bangladesh, is evident in the many mosques, mausoleums, forts, and gateways that have survived from the Mughal period 16th—18th century. Like Muslim architecture elsewhere in South Asia, these structures are characterized by the pointed archthe domeand the minaret. The best-preserved example is the dome mosque at Bagerhat in southern Bangladesh. The ruins of Lalbagh Fort, an incomplete 17th-century Mughal palace at Dhakaalso provide some idea of the older Islamic architectural traditions in Bengal. Bengali literature dates to before the 12th century. The Caitanya movementan intensely emotional form of Hinduism inspired by the medieval saint Caitanya —shaped the subsequent development of Bengali poetry until the early 19th century, when contact with the West sparked a vigorous creative synthesis. The modern period has produced, among others, the Nobel Prize -winning poet Rabindranath Tagore. Important Hindu Bengali holidays include the annual festivals devoted to various Hindu deities, most notably ShivaKaliDurgaLakshmiand Sarasvati. Holia spring festival, is celebrated by both Muslims and Hindus. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.

Europeans and Indians – divided or united by DNA?

They speak Bengalia language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The term "Bangalee" is also used to denote people of Bangladesh as a nation. Bengalis are the third largest ethnic group in the world, after Han Chinese and Arabs. In modern usage, "Bengali" or "Bangali" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Bengal. Their ethnonym is derived from the ancient Banga or Bangla. The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to come from "Bung", a son of Hind. It was either under Magadh or under Kalinga Rules except few years under Pals. The records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynastywho invaded Bengal in the 11th century, speak of Govindachandra as the ruler of Vangaladesa. An interesting theory of the origin of the name is provided by Abu'l-Fazl in his Ain-i-Akbari. According to him, "The original name of Bengal was Bung, and the suffix "al" came to be added to it from the fact that the ancient rajahs of this land raised mounds of earth 10 feet high and 20 in breadth in lowlands at the foot of the hills which were called "al". From this suffix added to the Bung, the name Bengal arose and gained currency". Archaeologists have discovered remnants of a 4,year-old Chalcolithic civilisation in the greater Bengal region, and believe the finds are one of the earliest signs of settlement in the region. Anga and later Magadha expanded to include most of the Bihar and Bengal regions. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India at the time of Buddha and was one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal is the mention of a land ruled by the king Xandrammes named Gangaridai by the Greeks around BCE. The word is speculated to have come from Gangahrd 'Land with the Ganges in its heart' in reference to an area in Bengal. Art of the Sena Empire11th century. Dakhil Darwaza, the Gateway of Lakhnauti. One of the first recorded independent kings of Bengal was Shashankareigning around the early 7th century. He founded the Bengali Buddhist Pala Empire which ruled the region for four hundred years, and expanded across much of Southern Asia : from Assam in the northeastto Kabul in the west, and to Andhra Pradesh in the south. Tilopa was also from the Bengal region. Islam first appeared in Bengal during Pala rule, as a result of increased trade between Bengal and the Middle East. The Pala dynasty was later followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena Empire. Islam was introduced to Bengal in the twelfth century by Sufi missionaries. Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. Consequently, the region was ruled by dynasties of sultans and feudal lords under the Bengal Sultanate for the next few hundred years. Islam was introduced to the Sylhet region by the Muslim saint Shah Jalal in the early 14th century. The Mughal Empire conquered Bengal in the 16th century. A few Rajput tribes from his army permanently settled around Dhaka and surrounding lands. Later, in the early 17th century, Islam Khan conquered all of Bengal.

South Asian Ethnicity

In biologyepigenetics is the study of heritable phenotype changes that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of normal development. The standard definition of epigenetics requires these alterations to be heritable [3] [4] in the progeny of either cells or organisms. The term also refers to the changes themselves: functionally relevant changes to the genome that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence. Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modificationeach of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. These epigenetic changes may last through cell divisions for the duration of the cell's life, and may also last for multiple generations, even though they do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism; [5] instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism's genes to behave or "express themselves" differently. One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesistotipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryowhich in turn become fully differentiated cells. In other words, as a single fertilized egg cell — the zygote — continues to dividethe resulting daughter cells change into all the different cell types in an organism, including neuronsmuscle cellsepitheliumendothelium of blood vesselsetc. Historically, some phenomena not necessarily heritable have also been described as epigenetic. For example, the term "epigenetic" has been used to describe any modification of chromosomal regions, especially histone modifications, whether or not these changes are heritable or associated with a phenotype. The consensus definition now requires a trait to be heritable for it to be considered epigenetic. The term epigenetics in its contemporary usage emerged in the s, but for some years has been used with somewhat variable meanings. The term epigenesis has a generic meaning of "extra growth", and has been used in English since the 17th century. From the generic meaning, and the associated adjective epigeneticBritish embryologist C. When Waddington coined the term, the physical nature of genes and their role in heredity was not known. He used it instead as a conceptual model of how genetic components might interact with their surroundings to produce a phenotype ; he used the phrase " epigenetic landscape " as a metaphor for biological development. Waddington held that cell fates were established during development in a process he called canalisation much as a marble rolls down to the point of lowest local elevation. In recent times, Waddington's notion of the epigenetic landscape has been rigorously formalized in the context of the systems dynamics state approach to the study of cell-fate. Robin Holliday defined epigenetics as "the study of the mechanisms of temporal and spatial control of gene activity during the development of complex organisms". More recent usage of the word in biology follows stricter definitions. The term has also been used, however, to describe processes which have not been demonstrated to be heritable, such as some forms of histone modification; there are therefore attempts to redefine "epigenetics" in broader terms that would avoid the constraints of requiring heritability. For example, Adrian Bird defined epigenetics as "the structural adaptation of chromosomal regions so as to register, signal or perpetuate altered activity states". Such redefinitions however are not universally accepted and are still subject to debate. The similarity of the word to "genetics" has generated many parallel usages. The " epigenome " is a parallel to the word " genome ", referring to the overall epigenetic state of a cell, and epigenomics refers to global analyses of epigenetic changes across the entire genome. Taken to its extreme, the "epigenetic code" could represent the total state of the cell, with the position of each molecule accounted for in an epigenomic mapa diagrammatic representation of the gene expression, DNA methylation and histone modification status of a particular genomic region. More typically, the term is used in reference to systematic efforts to measure specific, relevant forms of epigenetic information such as the histone code or DNA methylation patterns. In a sense somewhat unrelated to its use in biological disciplines, the term "epigenetic" has also been used in developmental psychology to describe psychological development as the result of an ongoing, bi-directional interchange between heredity and the environment.

Bengal cat

Most of you have probably seen me write about this before, but I think it might be useful to post again for Google or Quora, as Quora seems to like my blog posts as references. The Genomes project collected samples a whole lot of Bangladeshis in Dhaka. The figure at the top shows that the Bangladeshis overwhelmingly form a relatively tight cluster that is strongly shifted toward East Asians. There is one exception: about five individuals, several of which were collected right after each other their sample IDs are sequential who show almost no East Asian shift. I have one Bengali Brahmin in the sample. This individual has very little East Asian shift. In other words, they would plot between the Bangladeshi cluster and the other South Asian populations. I suspect that the individuals with no East Asian ancestry may be from one of the Telugu migrant Dalit communities which settled in Dhaka during the British period. Four of them are from Comilla. Though now a city, traditionally this region encompassed the area to the south and east of Dhaka, to the border with Tripura. Two of these individuals are my parents. I also added several from Sylhet, which borders Assam to the north Syhlet people speak an unintelligible language to standard Bengali, similar to the people of Chittagong and the Rohingya. Two things to note. First the Comilla individuals are found in the most East Asian shifted portion of the distribution. This suggests, along with the position of West Bengalis, that the eastern ancestry in Bengalis exhibits a west to east cline. My father is somewhat atypical, in that he is shifted out of the main Bangladesh cluster ever so slightly. Second, the Syhlet individuals seem to have something of a shift to Northwest Indians and Pakistanis. That seems likely looking at their position. Using Treemix, it is notable to me that both the Syhlet and Comilla groups show gene flow more directly from the Dai than the Bangladeshis more generally. I think this is likely an artifact…but there is some slight structure in the Bangladesh population which is probably being missed. The eastern ancestry in Bengalis probably comes from both Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman people, and this fraction must vary across the region or normal variation as part of Mendelian segregation. Earlier I said the Bangladeshi population is relatively unstructured. Click the Treemix plot above. The Bangladeshi sample has only modest quantitative differences in comparison to most of the other South Asians. Notice the relatively large range of variance. This is not atypical in sampling from South Asian populations. You see the same pattern in the Gujuratis sampled from Houston, and the Punjabis sampled from Lahore. There are a small number of individuals who cluster with Dalit groups, but far less than the Telugus. I suspect that panmixia is somewhat along the way in Sri Lankan Tamil populations. One thing to note is that Muslim Punjabi populations seem to have a huge amount of genetic variation. On par with what you see in Indian populations. Bengali Muslims are no more strictly Muslim than Muslims from Punjab.

Bengal and Punjab: Nations Divided

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