- List of 7400 series integrated circuits
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- 7400 Series
- 7400-series integrated circuits
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List of 7400 series integrated circuitsThe series of transistor-transistor logic TTL integrated circuits are historically important as the first widespread family of TTL integrated circuit logic. Several generations of pin-compatible descendants of the original family have since become de-facto standard electronic components. The series contains hundreds of devices that provide everything from basic logic gatesflip-flopsand counters, to special purpose bus transceivers and Arithmetic Logic Units ALU. Specific functions are described in a list of series integrated circuits. Today, surface-mounted CMOS versions of the series are used in various applications in electronics and for glue logic in computers and industrial electronics. The fastest types and very low voltage versions are typically surface-mount only, however. The pin DIP is an example of a part. The chip contains four two-input NAND gates. While designed as a family of digital logic, it was not unusual to see TTL chips in analog circuits like Schmitt triggers. Like the seriesthe newer CMOS versions of the series are also usable as analog amplifiers using negative feedback similar to operational amplifiers with only an inverting input. Originally the bipolar circuits provided higher speed but consumed more power than the competing series of CMOS devices. Milspec -rated devices for use in extended temperature conditions are available as the series. Texas Instruments also manufactured radiation-hardened devices with the prefix RSNand the company offered beam-lead bare dies for integration into hybrid circuits with a BL prefix designation. While companies such as Mullard listed series compatible parts in data sheets, [ 5 ] by there was no mention of the family in the Texas Instruments TTL Data Book. Some companies have also offered industrial extended temperature range variants using the regular series part numbers with a prefix or suffix to indicate the temperature grade. As integrated circuits in the series were made in different technologies, usually compatibility was retained with the original TTL logic levels and power supply voltages. Over 40 different logic subfamilies use this standardized part number scheme. The ACTQ family introduced by Fairchild utilizes Quiet Series technology to guarantee quiet output switching and improved dynamic threshold performance. The 74H family is the same basic design as the family with resistor values reduced. The 74H family provided a number of unique devices for CPU designs in the s. Many designers of military and aerospace equipment used this family over a long period and as they need exact replacements, this family is still produced by Lansdale Semiconductor. The 74S family, using Schottky circuitry, uses more power than the 74, but is faster. The 74LS family of ICs is a lower-power version of the 74S family, with slightly higher speed but lower power dissipation than the original 74 family; it became the most popular variant once it was widely available. The 74F family was introduced by Fairchild Semiconductor and adopted by other manufacturers; it is faster than the 74, 74LS and 74S families. Through the late s and s newer versions of this family were introduced to support the lower operating voltages used in newer CPU devices. The and series were used in many popular minicomputers in the seventies and early eighties. Hobbyists and students equipped with wire wrap tools, a ' breadboard ' and a 5-volt power supply could also experiment with digital logic referring to how-to articles in Byte magazine and Popular Electronics which featured circuit examples in nearly every issue. In the early days of large-scale IC development, a prototype of a new large-scale integrated circuit might have been developed using TTL chips on several circuit boards, before committing to manufacture of the target device in IC form. This allowed simulation of the finished product and testing of the logic before the availability of software simulations of integrated circuits. Intypical quantity-one pricing for the SN military grade, in ceramic welded flat-pack was around 22 USD. Purchased in bulk the price per unit falls even lower. The part numbers for series logic devices often use the following naming convention, though specifics vary between manufacturers.
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There are several families of logic ICs numbered from 74xx00 onwards with letters xx in the middle of the number to indicate the type of circuitry, eg 74LS00 and 74HC The original family now obsolete had no letters, eg For each IC there is a diagram showing the pin arrangement and brief notes explain the function of the pins where necessary. For simplicity the family letters after the 74 are omitted in the diagrams below because the pin connections apply to all ICs with the same number. If you are using another reference please be aware that there is some variation in the terms used to describe pin functions, for example reset is also called clear. Some inputs are 'active low' which means they perform their function when low. Note that 74HC inputs cannot be reliably driven by 74LS outputs because the voltage ranges used for logic 0 are not quite compatible, use 74HCT instead. The minor disadvantage of 74HCT is a lower immunity to noise, but this is unlikely to be a problem in most situations. For most new projects the 74HC family is the best choice. Some 74 series ICs have open collector outputs, this means they can sink current but they cannot source current. The diagram shows how an open collector output can be connected to sink current from a supply which has a higher voltage than the logic IC supply. The maximum load supply is 15V for most open collector ICs. Touching a pin while charged with static electricity from your clothes for example may damage the IC. In fact most ICs in regular use are quite tolerant and earthing your hands by touching a metal water pipe or window frame before handling them will be adequate. ICs should be left in their protective packaging until you are ready to use them. It is best to build a circuit using just one logic family, but if necessary the different families may be mixed providing the power supply is suitable for all of them. For example mixing and 74HC requires the power supply to be in the range 3 to 6V. A 74LS output cannot reliably drive a or 74HC input unless a 'pull-up' resistor of 2. Driving or 74HC inputs from a 74LS output using a pull-up resistor. The has Schmitt trigger inputs to provide good noise immunity. They are ideal for slowly changing or noisy signals. These are ripple counters so beware that glitches may occur in any logic gate systems connected to their outputs due to the slight delay before the later counter outputs respond to a clock pulse. The count advances as the clock input becomes low on the falling-edgethis is indicated by the bar over the clock label. This is the usual clock behaviour of ripple counters and it means a counter output can directly drive the clock input of the next counter in a chain. For normal use connect QA to clockB to link the two sections, and connect the external clock signal to clockA. For normal operation at least one reset0 input should be low, making both high resets the counter to zeroQA-QD low. Note that the has a pair of reset9 inputs on pins 6 and 7, these reset the counter to nine so at least one of them must be low for counting to occur. Counting to less than the maximum 9 or 15 can be achieved by connecting the appropriate output s to the two reset0 inputs. If only one reset input is required the two inputs can be connected together. For example: to count 0 to 8 connect QA 1 and QD 8 to the reset inputs. For normal use connect QA to clockB and connect external clock signal to clockA. Please see below for details of connecting ripple counters like the and in a chain. The contains two separate decade 0 to 9 counters, one on each side of the IC. They are ripple counters so beware that glitches may occur in any logic gate systems connected to their outputs due to the slight delay before the later counter outputs respond to a clock pulse.
The series logic TTL chips spawned a series of other derivative logic families offering slightly different characteristics: high speed, low power, etc. However the standard parameters remained the same: logic function a and a 74LS16 had the same function; they were pin compatible, etc. The series TTL chips remained in use for many years. They have long been superseded by other 74xx00 logic families, but they have been so successful that the basic concept has remained the same. Some of the main or highlight features and specifications for the series logic family are detailed below:. The logic series of ICs were fabricated using bipolar transistor technology and this gave its name to the logic technology, TTL standing for transistor-transistor logic. The series TTL ran from a nominal 5 Volt supply line and as a result of its popularity the 5 V line became standard for logic chips for many years, only changing when power restrictions and smaller feature sizes on chips as a result of higher integration and new processes forced the operating voltage down. Although launched in the mids the series became the main standard set of logic widely used in electronic digital circuits. There were earlier TTL series of chips. With their increasing popularity, the cost of the chips came down. Initial offerings cost many dollars each, but over time as production techniques matured and quantities rose vastly, some series chips could be bought for a few cents each. From the circuit diagram the basic blocks of this simple series IC can be easily seen. The input stage of the NAND gate is a multi-emitter transistor. This takes the inputs and provides the required logic. The next stage provides the required phase and drive for the final stage which is the standard totem pole output. It comprises two transistors and enables very fast switching times to be achieved. In this arrangement either Q1 or Q2 conducts dependent upon the complementary logic status of the inputs. The diode D1 ensures that Q2 is able to turn off rapidly when required. In this way external loads can be connected between the output, i. This has many applications including driving indicator lamps. However the speed of switching is much slower and dependent upon external influences. It is able to provide the high and low of a normal output. It is also possible to disable the output so it has no effect on the line being driven - in this state it is open circuit or floating. In order to be able to select this state, an additional "enable" input is required on the chip. To achieve the tri-state situation, the internal circuitry is arranged so that both transistors in the totem-pole output can be tuned off at the same time. Supplier Directory For everything from distribution to test equipment, components and more, our directory covers it. Selected Video Oscilloscope Types. Featured articles.
7400-series integrated circuits
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